The following papers have been submitted for consideration:

‘Fission and Fusion’: Peace, Security and Migration Issues in Contemporary Europe

Author: Hunud Abia Kadouf, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Purpose: Diaspora communities have an essential role in building peace and societal resilience in both their host countries and countries of origin. Starting from the premise that peace, security and migration often overlap as related phenomena based on the modern socio-political and economic realities in developing countries, this study examines current trends of migration to Europe engendered by the increasing threatening insecurity in their countries of origin. It concludes with the need for certain modalities, structures and tools to build constructive relationship between the Diasporas and the home countries.

Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts a conceptual analysis of practical issues involving the ‘fission and fusion’ of peace, security, and migration with particular reference to immigrants from various countries to Europe. These three virtually related and complementary perspectives indicate the increasing need to come up with some sustainable tools to ensure a two-way reform in both home and host countries.

Findings: The study finds that a number of modalities, structures and tools are needed to ensure integrative engagement of the major stakeholders through sustainable policies. These policies include setting clear criteria for the filtering system for inward migration, inverted transfer of knowledge through a planned technological transfer, multilateral treaty, and a proposal for the establishment of a United Nations Commission on Resettlement and International Development (UNCRID).

Practical Implications: Focusing on the dynamics of peace, security and migration to Europe and certain modalities proposed will help policy makers at both regional and international levels to come up with sustainable solutions to the unbridled global migration crisis.

Originality/value: Though discourses on insecurity and migration crises have mushroomed over the years, little attention has been paid to the interplay between the three complementary perspectives and the need to come up with some modalities to tackle the problem of migration headlong.

Vulnerabilities, Radicalisation and Extremism in Europe: The African connection

Author: David Otto, TGS Intelligence Consultants Ltd, UK

Purpose: To achieve a reasonable degree of success in countering violent extremism in Europe and Africa – plus the rest of the world – there must be a common robust effort and available platform to engage all vulnerable communities and frontline practitioners, equally, taking into full account, home and host dynamics and the enabling environment that provides the opportunity. Using the action – reaction –action approach, this paper calls on policy makers to pay attention to the key drivers that have resulted in the active involvement of Africans in the diaspora as Foreign Fighters and Home – Grown terrorist – a peril on our doorsteps.

Design /Methodology: The study is a critical description of a strategic change in time and factors from a balance of literature review and field research on why the African diaspora community in the UK and EU has evolved in so far as links to radicalisation, and violent extremism is concerned.

Findings: The African diaspora community in the UK and EU has shifted from passive to active involvement as foreign fighters and home grown terrorist in the past decade. The enabling environment in some affected African states like Nigeria and Somalia provides an alternative route for vulnerable young Africans to links with ISIL and Al-Shabaab for training, support and direct involvement in violent extremism. These links are real and growing fast. Policy makers and practitioners cannot continue to ignore them. They must be proactively addressed with all local dynamics taking into consideration.

Practical Implications: The dynamics of Africans in the Diaspora involvement in radicalisation and violent extremism experienced in the host and home nations by the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s has changed from a nationalist, passive, battlefield to an extremist ideology, active, target – by home-grown terrorist and foreign fighters who feel trapped between the desires and expectations of host/home nation’s culture and politics.

Originality /Value: There has been very little academic and policy value attached to the reality that VE groups like Boko Haram in Nigeria sowed seeds of radicalisation and extremism with ideological and physical link to Europe / West and the Middle East NOT just recently in March 2015 but as far back as 1999/2001 – at the same period when Al-Qaida was planning to launch its most deadliest attack ever on the New York on 11th September 2001.Ignore the Boko Haram – ISIL & Al-Qaida relationship at your peril..

Appraising the entrenching of sustainability into government procurement in Sub Saharan Africa: results from the public sector in South West Nigeria.

Author: Victor O. A. Adebayo, University of Westminster, United Kingdom

Purpose: Sustainable public procurement (SPP) enables the entrenchment of sustainable development goals in countries. In the last few years, several studies have examined the implanting of sustainability into public procurement; however, impirical studies on the incorporation of SPP in developing countries have been largely neglected.
Methodology: In an attempt to fill this research gap, the paper utilises a survey to examine the embedding of sustainability into public procurement in Nigeria. Results were achieved through questionnaires sent to 103 respondents working in the Nigerian public sector.
Findings: The findings of this study show that the main bottlenecks in implementing SPP in public sector organisations are the lack of top management support and the lack of expertise.
Originality: This paper contributes to the concepts of SPP and developing countries literature by integrating these areas into one study. At policy level, it gives more insight into the main bottlenecks in the embedding of sustainability into public procurement.
Keywords: sustainability; supplier relation management; procurement policy and processes; public sector; Nigeria; developing countries.

Poverty reduction through enabling factors
Author: Khurshed Alam, Bangladesh Institute of Social Research Trust, Bangladesh

Purpose: The objective of this paper is to identify factors which were instrumental to poverty reduction opposed to many factors that were considered as impediments to poverty reduction in a poor country like Bangladesh. The paper argues that rather than focusing on ‘barriers’ to poverty reduction, a country needs to identify and focus on its ‘potential’ factors of poverty reduction. The state needs to play the facilitating role rather than the instrumental in the case of poverty reduction.
Design/Methodology/approach: The study is an outcome of descriptive assessment of literature to identify the potential factors that contributed to poverty reduction in a poverty stricken country. The literatures covered wide range of issues including sectoral contribution to economic growth but none has exclusively dealt with instrumental role of the poverty reduction factors.
Findings: In order to reduce poverty, rather than attempting to change the ‘culture of poverty’, remove the ‘structural trap’, or ‘kin system as poverty trap’ it can be achieved through harnessing the enabling factors of poverty reduction. Utilization of land and labour could bring a transformation in the rural economy of Bangladesh which was essential to poverty reduction. Harnessing country-specific enabling factors could leave the poverty behind where the dominant enabling factors for Bangladesh were agricultural development and remittance. Individuals could escape poverty largely through their own effort with policy support from the state.
Originality/value: The paper reveals instruments to poverty reduction where usual practice was to identify the barrier to development and to suggest the means of overcoming those barriers. It suggests how to look into the matter from other way round where instead of identifying the barrier attempt should be made to identify the enabling factors and to harness those enabling factors. The findings are based on the country experience reported in different literatures but not generalized in the form as attempted here. The paper is expected to show a means of poverty reduction where country-specific strategy or home-grown model can be drawn out based on identification of potential factors.

Benchmarking of academic studies of dietitians in King Abdulaziz university – A comparison with the European standards
Author: Elham Aljaaly, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To assess standards and comparability of the KAU first cycle dietetics qualification in comparison to European standards.
Methodology: The KAU curriculum content and methods for delivering the programme was compared with European countries based on the 2005 European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD) Benchmark survey and the used question to compare basic education programmes.
Findings: The programme leads to a BSc, delivered in English language and gives qualification as a clinical dietitian. Based on EFAD benchmarking, dietetic education is under the faculties of health programs, particularly in the curricula of Faculties of Applied Medical Sciences. KAU deliver a programme in 120 Week (theory) & senior students practice for 60 day/year, which is within the range for European countries. KAU admission to training in most European programmes is comparable with European countries and require 5 level subjects concerning natural sciences, mathematics, national language, English language and practical experience. The division of the theoretical programme follow the European one and include Basic Sciences, Food & Nutrition Sciences, Food Services Administration, Nutrition Education & Community Nutrition. It is obligatory for senior students to submit a project report using research methods for passing the examination. The duration of the KAU project is 30 weeks and the range for European countries is (2.3 – 40 weeks). Graduation is connected with registration in most of European programmes, which is the same for KAU. The programme does not use ECTS and use a KAU Credit System, which is 137 Credit hours ≈ 342.5 ECTS
Practical implications: For KAU dietetics students to confirm the use of their qualifications, competences and skills internationally, particularly throughout the European Higher Education Area.
Originality/value: The first study to benchmark a Saudi dietetic progarmme with EFAD standards. The study can help the Saudi Ministry of Education and other Higher Education Institutions who deliver dietetics programmes to recognise the students need and demand qualification which can use effectively for the purpose of their studies and careers in comparison to European standards.
Keywords: EFAD; European; clinical nutrition; education; research; competencies; benchmarking; 1st cycle degree

The competitiveness of energy-intensive industries in EU’s last members
Authors: Hasan Agan Karaduman and Feride Doğaner Gönel, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Purpose: Despite the success in achieving the objectives for the use of renewable energy sources, the EU’s competitiveness is not at the desired level. In particular, the largest decreases in fossil-type energy intensity were observed in last 13 members of EU. However, it is important that how these countries protect the competitiveness of their energy-intensive industries.
Design/methodology/approach: The study uses revealed comparative advantage indices to measure the comparative advantage of EU-13 in energy-intensive industries for the period 1995-2014 and evaluate in the framework of EU’s climate policy
Findings: Some policies which make industries to adapt EU’s 20-20-20 targets, are forcing industries. In order to compete, these industries are leaving Europe and looking elsewhere. In this study we found that, particulary chemicals and non-metallic mineral manufactures resulted in a weakening of their CA over the years in some of these members. Similarly it is found that the RCA indices of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals are decreasing.
Originality/value: The study addresses the EU-13’s position in terms of their competitiveness and find the connection with the EU’s climate policy through their RCA of energy-intensive industries.
Keywords: European Union; energy-intensive industries; climate policy; energy policy; Revealed Comparative Advantage

Revisiting the welfare economics of moral hazard
Author: Nadia J. Sweis , Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Jordan

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to confirm that using indemnity health insurance decreases the problem of Moral Hazard in which people are over utilizing health care services.
Approach: This paper modified the microeconomic model of utility that explains the relation between risk and incentives of using health care services developed by Thomas McGuire.
Findings: The model concludes that individuals with high probability of getting sick don’t over utilize medical services when having indemnity health insurance.
Social implications: This paper suggests that using indemnity health insurance reduces Moral Hazard by the placing of responsibilities on both the insured and the insurer. The insured will be more careful when using health care services and might use preventive care.
Value: This paper adds to the literature a new mathematical approach that supports the provision of indemnity health insurance and why it might be preferable to universal health insurance.
Keywords: Optimal Health Insurance Coverage; Demand for Health Insurance; Moral Hazard; Cost Sharing; Private Health Insurance; Welfare loss of moral Hazard; Indemnity insurance.

Why integration policies matter from Middle East immigrants in France
Author: Alain Ndedi, Saint Monica University, Cameron
In 2015, immigration of Middle East citizens in France has been a matter of bitter public controversy. The most pressing moral issue in the controversy is the extent to which the France should continue to welcome poor immigrants, especially from Middle East. In each case controversy is compounded by disagreement about the best way to incorporate these newcomers immigrants in France. The two sources of political conflict are distinct. The justice or wisdom of policies in rich countries that create high volume immigration from poor citizens of poor countries has no necessary connection to the justice or wisdom of encouraging them to remain faithful to their inherited culture or to adapt to the French culture in ways that might radically alter theirs. The paper discusses this controversy in relation to France.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain how a gradual influx of Middle East immigrants of a distinct culture is little threat to France, since the immigrants will in large part assimilate the manners of France, their new home. The paper argued that, these newcomers will not wholly assimilate to the indigenous culture, but will contribute new elements to it. That is however an invigorating effect to the French culture. The new cultural elements of Middle East immigrants will be generally adopted if they are found to be compatible with the French society. Unfortunately, as argued by the paper, the French will not be assimilated unless the number of newcomers is great as literally to overwhelm French society.
Methodology: A literature review is conducted on countries that implemented integration opposite to assimilation policies to new immigrants, and how the results were outstanding.
Findings: The findings show that integration does not strictly entail assimilation; it can be accomplished through additive acculturation, a process whereby Middle East immigrants learn what is necessary to adapt to their new environment without forfeiting the practices and values that constituted their identity prior to immigration. The ultimate success of integration depends massively on individual immigrant and native citizens freely choosing to do things they have a right not to do, to live in mixed neighborhoods, to make friends across ethnic and religious divides, to show active goodwill across such divides, and the like.
Originality: This research showed that integration fails to the extent that an immigrant community is marginalized by the host society or practices self-segregation on the scale necessary to create and then sustain a partial societal culture.
Research limitations/implications: Future research need to focus on empirical research on immigrants’ integration. To this end, the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), which is a cross-country index of six main policy areas of the integra
The development of the great green wall in the sahel of Nigeria with some local constraints in sustainability
Author: Njidda M. Gadzama, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Purpose: The purpose of developing the Great Green Wall (GGW) Project financed by the United Nation’s GEF Trust Fund, is a pan African proposal in greening the Sahel of Africa from West (Dakar) to the east (Djibouti). It aims at reducing poverty and soil degradation in this region, taking into account the effects of desertification and climate change on sustainability of livelihoods.
Design/methodology/approach: Several desertification attenuation projects in Nigeria are employing different methods for maximum benefits obtainable from the objectives of the particular projects. As noted above however, the approach of GGW is to improve the alternative livelihoods of the people by their active participating in the implementation of the Project. It is also noted that environmental impact assessment, community reconnaissance or needs assessments might be initial part of pre-project activities, thereby making the communities more aware and educated of the impending environmental problems.
Findings: Desertification has reached an alarming state in Nigeria. The frontline desert threatened States of Nigeria constitute 40 % of the land mass of the country. With increased pressure of desertification, exacerbated by a period of prolonged drought of more than 20 years, climate change and human activities, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain sustainability in the management of the fragile lands and the region’s ecosystem. Strategic interventions in combating the problem of desertification in Nigeria have attenuated some of the detrimental social, economic and environmental impacts on the affected communities of the Sahel of the country. Programmes and projects have strengthened the resilience of the people, participating in sand dune stabilization, the Great Green Wall Sahara Sahel Initiative (GGWSSI) and other shelterbelt developments. Government has sustained inputs in environmentally friendly agriculture and also encouraged synergetic collaborative activities with international and national NGOs, International Agencies and local Institutions.
Originality and Value: These results/activities give evidence of the increased public awareness of environmental degradation due to desertification and climate change in Nigeria; the realization in environmental stabilization needs with ready participation of the communities for improved livelihoods in environmental activities and arid agriculture as supported by the National Great Green Wall (NAGGW) program of the country; resulting in internalization of these projects supporting livelihoods for sustainability in the Sahel of Nigeria. The scope of the activities of development, achievements with some constraints of the NAGGW are briefly summarized and discussed.
Keywords: Great Green Wall; desertification in the Sahel; drought and climate change; fragile ecosystem; environmental impacts; biodiversity loss; ecosystem management; community participation; sustainable management; livelihoods; synergetic collaboration

An economic analysis of potential GCC economic and monetary union for sustainable development—Drawing from the European experience
Author: Subhadra Ganguli, Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain

Purpose: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has been set up in 1980s for strengthening cooperation and economic development of the region. However, the progress has been slow and the oil price plunge recently has led to concerns regarding sustainable development primarily due to the region’s dependence on oil and lack of diversification. The paper analyzes the scope for economic and monetary union of the GCC in the current backdrop of oil crisis and examines potential implication of a union for sustainable development of the GCC through price transparency, free trade, movement of labor and resources.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws its theoretical and practical approach from the experience of the Economic Union of Europe (using convergence criteria and growth and stability pact) in 1999. The paper analyses time series data of macro-economic variables (e.g. GDP, budget deficits, debt and others) for GCC during 2005-14 from UNCTAD, World Bank and IMF databases.
Findings: The paper concludes that GCC economies are very similar in terms of their structural and economic fundamentals. The paper shows convergence of the countries in terms of macroeconomic variables and concludes that economic and monetary union will contribute towards sustainable development of the region.
Originality/Value: The study is useful to policy makers, central banks, industry and researchers as it relates sustainable development in GCC to the economic and monetary union following the experience of the EMU.
Keywords: Economic and Monetary union; sustainable development; GCC; European Union; convergence criteria; GDP; debt; budget deficits

Europe: wither the fortress around the Mediterranean and Africa?

Authors:
Christopher C. Nshimbi, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Inocent Moyo, University of South Africa, South Africa

Purpose: This paper interrogates European Union (EU)-Africa relationships on international migration issues. Europe has long been branded a fortress against foreigners, despite enacting numerous legislations, policies and practices accommodating third country nationals. Recent media and humanitarian organization reports of surging African and Middle Eastern refugees and migrants bring into sharp focus and test these immigration measures, as Europe searches for optimal solutions to the migration crisis.
Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on the evolving field of border studies and attempts to frame the EU-Africa relations on migration in the context of the concepts, borders, boundaries and frontiers. A thorough review and critical analysis of relevant legislations, literature and media reports on the Africa-Europe migration interface is also conducted.
Findings: The militarisation, securitization, restrictive and, sometimes, draconian immigration regimes do not provide sustainable solutions to the migration crisis facing Europe. A rethinking around the integration and inclusion of immigrants into Europe’s socioeconomic fabric, and addressing fundamental and structural weaknesses in EU-Africa relationships and respective economies is essential.
Originality/value: Theoretically, the paper attempts to understand better, the way the EU and Africa engage each other on international migration issues, in the context of border studies. Empirically, the paper positions itself in policy engagements and the quest for practical solutions by the two continents in view of the migration crisis currently facing Europe.
Keywords: Borders; Migration; Social cohesion; Social inclusion; EU-Africa migration interface; Fortress Europe

FDI spillover effects on Asia-Pacific sustainable productivity growth
Authors: Elsadig Musa Ahmed and Rahim Kialashki, Multimedia University, Malaysia

Purpose: The objective of the study is to examine the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) spillover effects on sustainable productivity growth of selected Asia-Pacific countries such as (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand, China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand).
Design/methodology/approach: The extensive growth theory that is expressed the decomposition of contribution of changes in labour force, physical capital, FDI, human capital, telecommunications investment and TFP growth on selected Asian Pacific countries output growth is used in this study. In this respect, an annual time series data over the period of 1970 to 2012 for the aforementioned variables is employed.
Findings: The study found that the FDI spillover effects through the total factor productivity (TFP), considered being productivity driven economic growth in which FDI spillover effects has significant effect on productivity growth of the majority of these countries. It should be noted that most of these countries showed technological progress through FDI spillover effects that is translated into form of technology transfer and human capital skills development.
Originality: This study empirically compared the FDI spillover effects on sustainable productivity growth of the most growing countries in Asia-Pacific region by using modified extensive growth theory that closed the gaps in the past studies and addressed the issues of technology transfer, human capital development and sustainable productivity growth brought by the technical progress in these countries through the FDI spillover effects on productivity growth.
Keywords: FDI spillover effects; Asian Pacific selected countries; sustainable productivity growth

Management of medical technology for sustainable reliability
Author: Sushil Varma, Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Ltd., New Zealand

Medical technology is constantly evolving to improve and prolong the lives of people. With the constant evolution of medical technology comes the constant challenge of managing the technology to ensure proper safety and function.
Purpose: This paper reports on an exploratory study conducted on New Zealand hospitals investigating how biomedical engineering departments can maintain reliability and meet growing demand for efficiency and safety.
Design/Methodology/Approach: This research is exploratory therefore a qualitative research approach using New Zealand public hospitals as case studies has been employed.
Findings: Discusses findings from two case studies and reports how hospitals can structure their biomedical engineering departments to efficiently manage medical technology to meet the growing demand and safety.
Originality/Value: This study provides valuable information on the management of biomedical technology.
Keywords: biomedical engineering; medical technology; management; safety and hospital

Practice of anthropometry for adolescents in Saudi Arabia and the need for sustainability of the practice: lessons from the UK

Author: Elham Aljaaly, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To approach and commend the national organizing bodies for nutrition and dietetic services in Saudi Arabia to learn lessons from the UK in endorsing and standardizing the practice of anthropometry for adolescents. This in order to ensure good quality and sustainability of this practice.
Design/methods: A practice evaluation survey to define and judge dietetic practice concerning anthropometric assessment for adolescent group in 10 governmental and private operating hospitals in Jeddah City. Hospitals with bed capacity of more than 150 beds and has at least four dieticians were included in the survey.
Findings: Membership with the Saudi Dietetic Association (SDA) was confirmed by only 10% of hospital dietitians, where none of the UK dietitians can practice the profession if not been registered by the British Dietetics Associations (BDA). Standards for practice followed were either national (10%) or international (60%) and both (30%). This is individualized by each dietetics department and is not unified or governed by a national organization body. Mostly (80%) of the practicing dietitians identify their individual scope of practice and the use of growth charts and reference data in assessing the growth of their patients. Lessons to learn from the BDA is to apply sustainability and resilience to all aspects of nutrition and dietetics practice, which are broader than any one specific practice setting or individual intervention.
Conclusion: The present study examines practices of anthropometry for adolescents in Jeddah hospitals, to identify enablers and obstacles for this type of assessment.
Originality/value: We predict this study will highlight the importance of standardizing the practice of anthropometric assessment among adolescent group. The study is also a call for the SDA to emphasize its role in governing and defining guidelines in all scopes of dietetics practice.
Keywords: Dietetics; Practice; adolescents; Anthropometry; assessment; Saudi Arabia

State level achievements of MDG- indicators in India during 1993-94 – 2013-14
Authors: Ranajit Chakrabarty, Calcutta University, India
Mahuya Chakrabarti, Bethune College, India
Ayan Chattopadhyay, Future Retail Ltd., India

Purpose: According to the Government of India 2015 report on MDG, India is yet to achieve almost 50% of the goals set by UN. India being characterized by her diversity, progress in terms of the indicators of MDGs for the country as a whole averages out the prevailing state level variations. This paper attempts to explore the status of these goals during 1993-94 – 2013-14 at state level using 12 targets and 35 indicators relevant for India along with an attempt to explain inter-state variations in this regard.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Using the TOPSIS method, a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method, the states have been ranked in terms of all the indicators of MDGs. These ranks were then analyzed using socio-economic and political factors to understand the root cause of variation.
Findings/Limitations: Ranking of the states considering all the indicators reveals the actual scenario in an effective way. The factors like state domestic product, state wise standard of education level, social backwardness and political leadership help in finding the link between the derived ranks and these socio-economic and political factors.
Originality/ Value: Previous studies in this area have been carried out taking the indicators separately. However without a comprehensive idea with all the indicators, the overall impact cannot be understood effectively. This study is novel since it takes into account each state with respect to all the indicators taken together thereby providing a comprehensive view on the variation in the MDG goals achievement.
Keywords: MDGs; MCDM; TOPSIS; SDP; Education; Social Backwardness; Political Leadership

Review of the effects of insurgency on sustainable healthcare development in north-east Nigeria
Authors:
Ibrahim N. Mamadu, Centre for Alternative Sustainable Livelihoods, Nigeria
Zara W. Wudiri, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Purpose: To analyze and highlight the effect of insurgency on healthcare outcomes in the developing world and its implications for future migratory patterns.
Design/methodology/Approach: A review of available information and publications on the above subject was carried out. Information was sourced from online databases, journals, websites, and reports.
Findings: Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a population of about 170 million. Over the last decade it has attempted to make gains in improving the healthcare of its citizens sustainably in line with its commitment to the Millennium Development Goals. In recent times however much of the progress made has been reversed in the North-East of the country due to a home grown insurgency by Boko-Haram militants. This region had some of the worst health indices in the country prior to this insurgency. In that region since 2009 more than 13,000 civilians have been killed and as many as 1.5 million displaced, with the highest number of attacks taking place in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States. In the State of Borno; the epicenter of the insurgency, 537 primary health centres, 38 secondary health centres and 2 tertiary centres existed of which about a third have been destroyed by insurgents also killing an unspecified number of health workers. Migration from that region has been mainly internal and across borders to Niger, Chad, and Cameroun with some affected persons joining the steady flow of migrants to Europe from other conflict ridden zones in the middle-East and Africa. While Nigerian troops and a West African multinational coalition force are making large gains in retaking territory from the insurgents, the rebuilding of critical infrastructure across the region is a long way from beginning. Without a concerted international effort at stabilizing this region and rebuilding the socio-economic and healthcare infrastructure there will be a continuous flow of displaced persons turning up in the country’s neighbors and ending up in other continents, further increasing the resources required to provide social services for these individuals and added security checks for immigrants.
Originality and Value: The results highlight the need for the international community to assist in the rebuilding of infrastructure and systems in the insurgency affected regions and stem the tide of displaced people and migrants from the source. Reports from the healthcare angle have not been highlighted internationally and will require increased attention and funding.
Keywords: Insurgency; Migration; Boko-Haram; Healthcare; Developing countries; Africa; Middle East; MDGs; Nigeria

An inquiry into success factors influencing the choice of a beneficial foreign market
Author: Marwan Al Qur’an, Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Jordan

Purpose: Very little attention was given in the existing literature to the international market selection by Arabian international firms. Therefore, this exploratory research examines critical success factors contributing to the successful selection of beneficial international markets.
Design/Methodology/Approach: As an endeavor to provide rich and deep insights into critical success factors in international market selection process, it was imperative to adopt the case study method as it allows to, deeply, exploring all aspects involved in the decision-making process undertaken in selecting foreign markets. Two comparative and rich-information case studies were purposefully selected from among Saudi large international firms. Furthermore, six international market selection decisions were examined within these two cases through relying on several data sources: in-depth face to face interviews, short telephone and follow-up interviews and questionnaire instrument as primary data sources besides field notes, documents review when available and internet sources as secondary data sources. Two main stages of analysis were undertaken in the current research, namely, within and cross-case analyses
Findings: The empirical findings of the extant research show that a thorough consultative and strategic decision process should be considered to attain effective international market selection decisions. Results reveal also that four critical factors contributing to the successful selection of beneficial international markets by Arabian international firms, i.e., (1) international business experience of the selected IMS team, (2) the market knowledge about the potential international markets, (3) in-house and external consultations with international business experts and (4) identification of a trustworthy and internationally experienced manager for the international operation
Originality/Value: The research findings provide theoretical and practical implications to the internationalization and international market selection. Further, it provides important methodological contributions to international business research in relation to an effective multiple case study approach to capture elements of the comprehensive and complex international market selection process.
Keywords: Success factors; international market selection; Arabian international firms

The success of incubators, accelerators and innovations: A case study
Authors:
Hanadi Mubarak Al-Mubaraki, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Michael Busler, Stockton University, United States

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate and identify the strengths and weaknesses of Incubators, Accelerators and Innovations (IAI). The identification used six indicators.
Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the aim, the research uses qualitative approach consisting of a review of the literature, several organizational documents included annual internal reports, and two international interviews located in the UK.
Findings: The research findings indicated the strengths and weakness of selected (IAI) programs such as University of South Wales, which presents high indicators 85% and the University of Anglia Ruskin, which presents medium indicators 75%.
Conclusion: The authors conclude that the strengths and weaknesses of (IAI) programs will be guidelines for academia and practitioners such as governments, policy makers, funded organizations, universities and strategic institutions for successful implementation.
Keywords: Innovation; accelerators; incubators and economic growth

Ramadan fasting among pregnant women with diabetes: an international neglected phenomenon
Author: Nagat Elzein Eltoum, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: to explore the literature looking for European or international guidelines about the management of diabetes during Ramadan fasting among pregnant women
Design/methodology/approach: Systematic database searches using Scopus, PubMed, Medline and Web of science with key words “Ramadan fasting”, “diabetes”, and “pregnancy” was conducted in November 2015
Findings: there are only two studies conducted in United Kingdom and two studies in the Islamic majority countries; mainly in Malaysia with a total sample size of 358 and 67 respectively
Originality/ Value: Despite the fact that Muslim pregnant women are exempted from fasting during Ramadan, it is documented that some of pregnant women with diabetes choose to fast. This review was conducted to assist in developing sustainable evidenced based care for this group of women. The findings reflected an urgent need for more studies to investigate the prevalence of Ramadan fasting among diabetic women and its effect on maternal and fetal wellbeing
Keywords: Ramadan fasting; diabetes; pregnancy

Small entrepreneurs finance by Islamic banks: an empirical review
Author: Mohammed Nurul Alam, Canadiaan University Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to delineate the ‘shariah[1]’ based Islamic Banking finance and to see as to how and to what extent the Musharaka (Partnership) mode of financing works while lending funds to different rural-based small entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to explore the success of Islamic Banks in extending credit facilities through the Musharaka mode of financing to its clienteles in a particular country context.
Design/methodology/approach: An Institutional-Network theoretical frame of references is used to study this particular phenomenon. The research methodology applied in the study is of a qualitative nature. A multiple explanatory case study is adopted as a research strategy in order to focus on contemporary phenomenon within the real life context of small entrepreneurs in rural Bangladesh.
Findings: Among others, the finding includes the extent to which ‘Musharaka’ mode financing by the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) contributes in developing network relationships between the lenders and the borrowers and other related economic actors in a society. The finding also reveals the impact of societal sector institutions in accelerating the Islamic financing activities in a particular socio-cultural environment.
Research limitations/implications: The study is mainly relates to the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited and its clienteles’ concerning the small entrepreneurs in rural Bangladesh.
Practical implications: Since lending organizations under Islamic Financing System (IFS) render services to their clienteles without interest, the lender-borrowers relationships is featured by ‘in kind’ rather than cash and a close supervision of their borrowed funds. Apart from ‘Musharaka’ mode of financing, while lending funds to its customers; the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited invests funds under other different ‘shariah’ based investment modes of funding like the Mudaraba, Murabaha and Bai-Muajjal.
Originality/value: The study is based on the socio-cultural context of Bangladesh where the paper premised on its theoretical perspective and ‘Institutional-Network Approach’ in the field of ‘Musharaka’ mode of Islamic finance towards rural based small entrepreneurs

[1] Sharia means the moral code and religious law of a prophetic religion

Sustainable development and radiology
Author: Naglaa Mostafa Elsayed Abdallah, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: To highlight the relation between radiology and sustainable development in Europe and Middle East countries.
Methodology: This is a review article where data about sustainable development and radiology are collected from selected journals, web sites, articles and conferences e.g. Royal College of Radiology, European society of radiology, WHO, and other national and international radiology societies.
Findings: In Europe, most medical and radiological organizations adopt and support sustainable development to allow people to live in a healthy, ecologically assorted environment. This trend is new for Middle East countries.
Practical implications: Limiting the use of radiologic examinations, guide the clinicians to use clinical skills before rushing to radiology examinations will save money, preserve equipment and protect patients from possible radiation hazards. The use of teleradiography will indirectly reduce global warming, and will also deliver medical services to poor countries that lack expert radiologists.
Social implications: Improving the health of people of poor countries to improve their socioeconomic level.
Originality: This article focuses on the value of applying sustainable development in radiology not only in medicine in general.
Keywords: Radiology- sustainable- development- teleradiology- developing countries- Europe- Middle East.

Nutrigenomics: use of personalized diet to prevent The onset of disease and optimize human health
Author: Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: Providing an insight on the nutrigenomics research concentrating on Europe for bringing: (1) Public understanding about the changing food habits and lifestyle. (2) How nutrigenomics can contribute in making life healthier. (3) Support additional research in this area.
Methodology: Concentrating on Europe, a literature search on nutrigenomics was conducted by  using different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, Scopus and views for the European Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO) reports, publications and newsletter.
Findings: Diet interrelates with the genotype to produce a phenotypical change. It has a significant effect on health and chronic disease. Functional genomic techniques could let the bioactivities of food ingredients to be described. Results showed the possibility to identify gene polymorphisms, which predispose persons to disease and adapt nutritional needs. Variances in genetic makeup (genotype) are causes in different diseases. Nutrigenomics explain why some people can control disease with diet, while others need drugs.
Practical implications: Training a new generation of European scientists to practice nutrigenomics.
Social implications: Enable targeting of nutritional advice and treatment to “at risk” groups.
Originality/value: Nutrigenomics is expected to significantly contribute to personalized medicine.
Keywords: Nutrigenomics; Europe; Diet-Gene Interaction; Personalized Nutrition

The use of green materials and systems in UAE construction projects – A baseline study
Authors:

Aly El Gayar, University of Ottawa, Canada
Salwa M. Beheiry, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Alaa Jabbar, Sumer Building Contracting, United Arab Emirates
Hamad Al Ansari, Masdar Institute, United Arab Emirates

Purpose: Over the past decade, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) introduced several green regulatory guidelines, federal decrees and a considerable number of environmentally friendly initiatives. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the top green materials and systems used currently in the UAE construction industry as per the new laws dictate as well as see if professionals are switching over to incorporate more green materials, systems and/or designs.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The work involved reviewing internationally popular green materials and systems for construction, developing a questionnaire based on the literature review, surveying professionals in the 7 UAE emirates, and ranking the findings based on the Relative Importance Index (RII).
Findings: Findings found the top used green materials and system in the UAE’s construction industry. As well as identified that there is a communication gap between the design and implementation phases that is possibly hindering the use of more green materials and systems.
Originality/Value: This study sets a baseline to measure the UAE’s progress over the coming years in terms of integrating more green construction materials, systems, methodologies and trends.
Keywords: Green Materials and Systems; United Arab Emirates; Construction Industry; Energy and Resource Efficiency; Sustainability; Baseline Studies

Assessment of the impacts of harsh weather on use of sustainable transport options: the case of Dubai

Authors: Ali El Masri and Ghassan Abu-Lebdeh, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Purpose: This research aims to examine the impacts of harsh environments (hot and humid weather) on use of sustainable transport modes (specifically mass transit) when users have a choice and reasonable access to such modes. The research also aims to determine the influence of relevant socio-economic characteristics on users’ mode selections given the harsh weather.
Design/Methodology/Approach: A random representative sample of Dubai transport system users were polled to determine their mode selections when a choice actually exits. Reasoning for stated choices and other socio-economic factors were solicited. Suitable statistical hypotheses were tested to assure the validity and significant of the findings.
Findings: Although majority of users stated that harsh weather is an influencing factor in their mode choice, the difference in the responses was not statistically significant to support a conclusion that the harsh weather of Dubai is mode selection determining factor. Users were also not sensitive to modest changes in fuel prices. Sizable increases (3- and 4-fold) in fuel prices were found to likely induce a change in attitude and perhaps cause a modal shift in favor of the more sustainable modes of metro and transit bus.
Originality/Value: The study presents answers on the likely contribution of harsh weather to the low percentage of commuter trips use mass transit in Dubai. The study also exposes the likely influence of increasein fuel prices on commuter’s mode choices. The findings have significant implications to transport polices and funding of different modes in the area or areas with similar weather and socio-economic characteristics.
Keywords: harsh weather; transit use; mode choice; fuel prices

Exploring the challenge for future sustainable development in power sector
Authors: Mostafa Mohamad and John Anuge, University of Salford, United Kingdom

In recent times, the global pressure on the environment has been a major issue to attaining future sustainable development. In this study the researchers will be exploring the recent challenges for sustainable development in power sectors in UK as a European country and also looking at Nigeria as an African country with its unstable epileptic power supply despite the trillions of dollars investment in same sector over the year and many scholars are of the opinion that power sector is a major factor to the nation’s economic setback in recent times as a reflection. The power sector is crucial to the attainment of a sustainable development whilst considering the clamour to acquire nuclear power stations and deterrents in recent time by political leaders, heads of governments democratic or otherwise (Arms control, 2015). Currently in UK, the renewable technologies use natural energy to make electricity, including other fuel sources as; wind, wave, marine, hydro, biomass and solar (Energy UK, 2015).

Research aim: The aim of this research is to explore the challenges of sustainable development and to share knowledge on the possible ways to tackle these challenges.
Approach / methodology: The qualitative method will used and the data will be collected with the use of questionnaire with open ended questions, case studies and documents reviews.
Findings: The findings will be based on the various issues raised as challenges and the questionnaires that will be administered in this study.
Limitations: Time and data collection
Social implications: With paper presentations in this conference, knowledge and ideas will be shared, exchanged with the intension of influencing the participants that could transfer it back to their organisations and to the society.

Rhetorical bottomless basket case vs Bangladesh’s success with the MDGs
Authors:

Mohammad Samsul Hoque, Bangladesh Civil Service, Bangladesh
Moazzem Hossain, Griffith University, Australia

Purpose: This year (2015) is the end of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) initiative launched by the UN under the Millennium Declaration 2000. There were eight goals of the MDGs and the aim was to reduce each by half by 2015 from 1990 level. Bangladesh has its share of achievements in meeting all these goals. In particular, the nation reduced poverty by half well before 2015. In achieving sanitation target Bangladesh made major breakthrough in providing access to both rural and urban people. This makes Bangladesh a role model for the developing world in two MDG fronts: improved sanitation access and poverty reduction. This paper attempts to investigate these two issues and analyse the reasons behind the success and lessons for other developing nations.
Design/ Methodology/Approach: Poverty reduction will be measured from both secondary macro data and primary micro data from a survey carried out in 2014. The methods used are headcount ratio (HCR) and in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms. These are acceptable approaches used for poverty assessment in developing nations. The sanitation performance will be assessed from secondary data available from UNICEF and WHO database. The performance in both rural and urban sanitation facilities will be compared and the factors for improved sanitation will be identified and analysed statistically.
Findings/Limitations: So far it has been established that poverty wise Bangladesh achieved the MDGs’ number one goal ahead of time (2015) and in the area of sanitation the country is approaching close to achieving the goal. However, these findings need investigating further from primary data and make results available to evaluate gaps in reporting.
Original Value: The study will make original contribution towards the debate between the nation’s rhetorical image as bottomless basket case and success with the MDGs in two fronts: poverty reduction by half from 1990 level and doubling sanitation facilities from 1990 level. It is important to know the nation’s stand between rhetoric and reality for future development policies.

Framework for a decision matrix in green project management processes
Authors: Mustafa Al-Tekreeti and Salwa Beheiry, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Purpose: Develop a decision matrix for Green Project Management Processes (GPMPs) in commercial construction projects. GPMPs can assist in decoding all of the information required to make green-conscious decisions at various stages of a project.
Methodology: Integrate the environmental factors into the traditional Project Management Processes (PMPs) of major construction projects. The integrated product is worked into a process index, and the Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) method is used to prioritize the GPMPs according to a pre-set criteria.
Findings: Research established the theoretical backing of green practices integration in the traditional PMPs, by creating an AHP weighted GPMP index that is linked to usable decision matrix.
Originality: Develops a fresh methodology to facilitate green decision-making in the project management of commercial construction projects.
Keywords: Project Management Process; Green Project Management Processes; Decision Matrix; Green Indicators; Analytical Hierarchy Processes; Environmental Management.

Study the variability of water quality in a large distribution network
Authors: Mohammed Maruf Mortula, Kazi Parvez Fattah and Tarig Ali, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Purpose: Maintaining a healthy water distribution infrastructure is the key to providing good quality services to the consumers for long period of time. Maintaining the integrity of the infrastructure is not possible without appropriate management of water quality throughout the water distribution system. Water distribution network in the city of Sharjah, UAE is facing one such challenge. Due to its large and diverse network characteristics, understanding the water quality pattern is critical to appropriate management. The objective of this paper was to study the variability of the water quality parameters in Sharjah water distribution network.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Water quality monitoring data was collected in 46 different locations throughout the distribution network within Sharjah Water Electricity Authority. Several water quality parameters were monitored including pH, electrical conductivity, residual chlorine, iron and fluoride. Graphical and Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis was conducted on the variability of water quality parameters throughout the distribution network.
Findings: The results indicated that the old part of the city is more venerable to water quality degradation than the new distribution network. Even though all the water quality parameters were within the limits set by the government, there are sections of distribution network that can be maintained with priority to ensure sustainable infrastructure.
Originality/Value: This study provides an important understanding of the variability of water quality through SEWA water distribution network. Hence, the study revealed the sections of the distribution network that needs to be managed for sustainable development for the city of Sharjah.
Keywords: Water Distribution Network; Water Quality; Infrastructure Integrity; Sustainability; Spatial Variability; Infrastructure Management

Impact of teamwork skills on students’ creativity: a case of classroom educational program
Author: Siham El-Kafafi, ICL Education Group, New Zealand

Purpose: The aim of this research is to find out the impact of utilizing both Tuchman’s Model and Belbin’s team roles on students’ creativity in classroom activities, team effectiveness and the success of teaching students teamwork skills as a mean of arming them with the required skills for their future professional careers in real life.
Design/Approach: This research reports on a case study of teaching Post Graduate Diploma Students Teamwork skills of two different classes. The case study utilizes Bruce Tuckman’s Model of Team Formation: 1) Forming, 2) Storming, 3) Norming, 4) Performing and 5) Adjourning and Belbin’s (2002) team roles as a means of keeping the students focused on achieving their team goals and maintaining a positive relationship with the aim of effective performance.
Findings: As a result of following Tuckman’s Model and Belbin’s team roles by the two graduate classes, the following were some of the initial research findings: team ground rules assisted students in keeping team values and team cohesiveness; team members assumed all of Belbin’s 9 roles depending in the task allocated to them to fulfil the assignment requirements; leadership role tended to be rotated among all team members within each team; all teams demonstrated creativity in designing their team logos; and tendency to assume positive behaviors than the negative behaviors demonstrated in both class engagement and final marks of their course assessments.

Originality/Value: This topic is important because teamwork skills and the ability to collaborate with others in diverse group settings is a requirement in the modern global organization. Accordingly, it’s a skill sought after by organizations all over the world. Furthermore, as an educator I believe that the main objective of my profession is to train and equip my students with the required skills for their future professional careers. One of those important skills is the ability to work collaboratively and effectively in teams to achieve high standards of performance to attain their goals successfully.
Research Limitations: This research reports on findings of a case study of a specific Post-Graduate Diploma which is relevant to a specific cohort of students i.e. results cannot be generalized on all types of student cohorts because other contributing factors may play a role in the equation.
Keywords: teaching teamwork skills in post-graduate education; Tuckman’s Model of Team Formation; Belbin’s Team Roles; team effectiveness; student creativity

Soil productivity and food security in Sudan: current situation and challenges
Authors:

Sarra Ahmed M. Saad, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Sudan
Moawia Yahia Babiker, Ekhtibarat Soil and Water Tests Service, Sudan
Suliman GasmElseed, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan

Problem: Sudan as one of the developing world already contends with chronic poverty and food crisis. Soil productivity presents yet another significant challenge to be met. The decrease in agricultural production during the growing seasons adversely affected human lives and causes scarcity of major crops in Sudanese markets as the results prices increased and the import from outside the country also increased to fill the gap even for major crops e.g. wheat and some vegetable.
Methodology: In order to assess the agricultural potentials in Khartoum State, field survey was conducted by collecting data from different schemes and soil samples were also taken and analyzed for quality measures.
Findings: Results revealed that most agricultural schemes grow vegetables and fodder throughout the year and also the significant reduction in agricultural production in all schemes which reached up to 40 % compared to the last 10 years. The increase in temperature especially during the winter season enforced some farmers to change their crop bands. Irrigation water supply; spread of diseases, high cost of fertilizers, soil erosion and lack of agricultural extension also affected crop production in most schemes.
Value: Therefore it is recommended that urgent measures should be implemented in order to increase agricultural production. Land management programs and fertilization strategies must be considered.  Implementation of awareness programs about the hazards of climatic change and temperature increase especially among farmers and decision makers for better planning and future outlook is highly needed.

The involvement of nutraceuticals to sustainable healthcare in Europe in the context of depression
Author: Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Purpose: Studies evidence-based records on the use of some nutraceuticals in Europe in the context of depression, and represent their specific anti depressant properties to achieve the targets of the European health policy ‘Investing in Health’ and hence upkeep sustainable healthcare systems.
Methodology: The literature was gained by searching MEDLINE (PubMed), Google Scholar, PsychINFO, and Quertile databases and retrieving relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals.
Findings: Results provided evidence of a range of nutraceuticals, which are of potential benefits in management of depression and psychiatric disorders. Studies support the anti depressant properties of Omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosylmethionine, Dehydroepiandrosterone, serotonin, tryptophan vitamins (niacin, thiamine, vitamin B12, and folate) minerals, (Ca Mg Zn, Se, Fe) and Some phytochemical. Talbinah (barley water) is an example of a nutritious food used by Arab and Muslims could reduce depression. It is potentially safe for sedation as the content of neurotransmitters is raised following daily oral administration of Talbinah (barley water).
Practical implications: Randomized controlled trials continue to provide evidence for the nutraceuticals use for mood disorders and certainly, the evaluation process continues when new information about a therapy is generated.
Social implications: Nutraceuticals emphasize the Person-focused Medicine, which offers a   psychophysical balance to the individual
Originality/value: Nutraceuticals have specific antidepressant properties that found to be of benefit in psychiatric population and reduce the pharmacotherapeutic side effects.
Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Depression; Talbinah; Antidepressant; Sustainable; Europe.