The following papers have been submitted for consideration:

Hand grip strength, body mass index and anthropometric measurements among female university students: a preliminary data in Bahrain
Dalia M Kamel, Fatima E Mirza, Fatima H Al-Zaki, Jenan J Al-Sehali and Zahra A Abdulla, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Purpose of the study: to have a data base about hand grip strength and other factors that may affect it among Bahraini university students.
Methodology: 77 female students from Ahlia University in Bahrain were included in the study. They filled a demographic data sheet and some anthropometric variables were measured.
Results:  there were significant correlations (P<0.05) in hand dominance, Body mass index, lifestyle, each with the hand grip strength. However, there was no significant correlations (P>0.05) regarding handedness, keyboard usage hours, practicing skillful hand hobbies with the hand grip strength.
Conclusion: the factors that show a significant relationship along with the hand grip strength, should be taken in consideration when aiming to improve the hand grip strength for any individual who plan to increase his/her hand grip strength, whether they are healthy or with impairment.
Practical implications: predict the normal hand grip strength among female Bahraini youth.
Keywords: Body mass index, mid upper arm circumference, hand grip strength, total arm length, hydraulic dynamometer, handedness, life style.

The impact of neuromarketing advertising on children: intended and unintended effects

Amani Al Abbas and Weifeng Chen, Brunel University, UK
Maria Saberi, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Many big companies and research organizations are following the new hot trend of using neuromarketing. This is due to them being desperate for any innovative technique to help break through all the customer and market  confusions. Major corporations like Companies like CBS, Disney, Google , Frito-Lay and A & E Television, as well as some political candidates , have used neuromarketing to advertise and assess their marketing attempts. In addition Nielsen did in fact invest in NeuroFocus in 2008, adding reliability to the field. This new field has been criticized heavily in many aspects specially ethically when it comes to children. Researchers and other concerned parties voiced their concerns in many occasions. Advocates of neuromarketing, however, say neuromarketing is simply a more accurate barometer of consumer response than traditional focus groups. This research is aimed at assessing the impact of neuromarketing advertisements on children. This is carried out by establishing the two types of effects that can occur as a result of neuromarketing advertising: intended and unintended effects. The research present a conceptual framework to assess those effects on children in the context of neuromarketing. 
Keywords: Neuromarketing, Advertising, Intended effects, Unintended Effect, Children.

Toward a theoretical framework between opportunity entrepreneurship, institutions and economic development

Hasan Ghura and Xiaoqing Li, Brunel University London, UK
Purpose: This study aims to develop a theoretical framework to illustrate that oil-based countries can diversify and sustain their economies towards knowledge-based growth while appropriate institutions are effective for opportunity entrepreneurship.
Design approach: Hypotheses are proposed and presented in a theoretical framework.
Findings: Findings suggest that institutions play a moderating role between opportunity entrepreneurship and economic development. Institutions can stimulate entrepreneur’s behavior leading to economic growth. Propositions worth pursuing in empirical studies in the future are developed.
Practical implications: This framework offers a model for oil-based countries in resolving structural problems in responding to economic challenges.
Originality/value: A complete set of formal and informal institutional factors which are rarely examined in existing literature linking opportunity entrepreneurship and economic growth are considered in the framework. Insights offered by this study have implications on government policy changes in developing effective institutions. 
Keywords: Opportunity entrepreneurship, Economic development, Economic growth, Institutional economics, Knowledge-based economy.

Enhanced Knowledge Discovery in Data Mining (KDDM) for better decision making related to student academic performance in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs)
Subhashini Bhaskaran, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Kevin J Lu, Brunel University, UK
Mansoor Al Aali, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Literature shows that knowledge about course taking patterns is useful for decision making about enhancement of student academic performance in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs). Literature review and actual observation of student performance in HEIs showed that time to degree and GPA of students can be enhanced using course taking patterns characterized by contextual knowledge through Knowledge Discovery in Data Mining(KDDM) processes. However current KDDM processes do not have a mandatory contextual knowledge processing stage and hence may not be useful for implementation in HEIs unless modified to include one. This research uses Design Science methodology to contextualise KDDM process models (CKDDM). The CKDDM outperformed KDDM in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. The CKDDM that could be used for effective decision making especially pertaining to course taking patterns to optimize time-to-degree is a novel contribution. The implication will be better decision making in HEIs.
Investigating the role of information security management in smart city organizations
Mohamad Amin Hasbini, Kaspersky Lab, United Arab Emirates
Tillal Eldabi, Brunel University London, UK
Purpose: The Information security management is proving to be an important topic of the modern world; in environments that will highly rely on digital technologies such as smart cities, information security management research is of high importance
Design/methodology/approach: organizational factors that influence information security management in smart city organizations are embraced from the literature, then tested empirically for validity and criticality.
Findings: the identification of the information security management related organizational factors that will most influence smart city organizations organizational performance.
Originality/value: The paper presents advanced information on the information security management in smart city organizations, the lack of research in this area and the criticality of the highlighted issues, creates high value for the conclusions and findings of this research.
Keywords: Organizational factors, Organizational performance, Information Security, Information Security Management, Smart cities, Smart city organizations.

Board Gender Diversity: A Review of the Literature
Reem Khamis and Tillal Eldabi, Brunel University London, UK
Adel Al Sarea, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Board gender diversity has been studied widely recently. There have been contradicted point of views regarding the possible outcomes of it. Empirical results were conflicted as well which motivates researchers for investigating more in the insights of this issue.  This study aims to review literature in the area of board gender diversity and firm performance for identifying existing research themes and future opportunities to better understand the relation between board gender diversity and firm performance. Generally, there are two main perspectives related to board gender diversity, those are ethical and business perspectives. This study focusses on articles related to the business rationale of board gender diversity and its effect on firm’s outcomes. This review identified four main trends in the literature of Gender diversity, which are: organisational environment, firm performance and value creation, governance and policies, socio-economics and socio-cultural attributes. The paper concludes by identification of some gaps for future studies and finally the study suggested elaborating the work of previous studies to build a comprehensive conceptual framework that would consider the external and internal environmental factors affecting board gender diversity and firm performance relationship.
Keywords: Gender Diversity, performance, business case, firm outcomes, socio-economics, socio-cultural attributes.

Experimental application of Centrifugal Separation Techniques “CST” on reclaiming produced wastewater from Oil Refinery, Khartoum State
Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Sudan 
Montaisr Abbas Hamza Khider, Ministry of Environment, Sudan
Moawia Yahia Babiker, Ekhtibarat Soil and Water Test Services, Sudan
Sufyan A. M. Ossman, Ministry of Oil, Sudan
Purpose: The great amount of the daily discharge wastewater from the oil refinery in Khartoum needs proper management as it contains high concentration of oil that limits its use for any irrigation practices or human use.
Objective: The objective of this work is to implement and assess the application of the Centrifugal Separation Technique (CST) in separating oil from refinery wastewater.
Methodology: wastewater samples we collected from the evaporation treatment ponds in different months and analyzed for oil content and quality assessment. The Wastewater samples (300 l) were pumped in the CST system, through a centrifugal filter for 12 hours. The separated samples were then collected in an outlet container and further analyzed for total aromatic hydrocarbons (TRPHC) and total aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons (TAPHC) concentrations.
Results: Analysis of the wastewater revealed the high concentration of oil that ranges between 1.70 mg/l to 95.7 mg/l. Other parameters e.g turbidity, pH, Ec, ammonia, sulfides and phenols also showed high values. Results also revealed that the concentrations of TRPHC and TAPHC and turbidity were reduced significantly after the CST method application.
Value: CST method is recommended to be applied to remove the oil from wastewater for further uses.
Keywords: Oil removal, Wastewater management, CST.

Bioeconomy and its connection to knowledge-based economy

Elsadig Musa Ahmed, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Purpose: This paper aims to explaining bioeconomy as new stream of knowledge-based economy that existed in the new era of the information and communications technology (ICT).
Design/methodology/approach: The bioeconomy refers to the production of a wide range of goods and services, from plant, animal and forest-based material. It is more than just grain based bio-fuels or bio-diesel as extensively highlighted in Latin America. It’s related to biotechnology activities and other bio activities based on knowledge generated from the bio activities and extension of Knowledge-based economy.
Findings: The main concern of developing bioeconomy is the environmental damage through the undesirable output produced by the activities of bioeconomy. Moreover, the bioeconomy centered on research and development (R&D) collaborations across deferent sectors and public and private sector in order to breakthrough new products through invention and innovation.
Originality: For the bioeconomy to be realized and put in practice it should be well developed regulatory framework as a platform for the bioeconomy to be run and work smoothly.
Keywords: Bioeconomy, knowledge-based economy, environment, R&D, regulatory framework.

Influence of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D on management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum

Rashida Abusin,University of Bahri, Sudan
Elfatih Ahmed, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan
Mohammed Hassan, Environment and Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute, Sudan
Nahid Abdalfattah Khalil, Sudan University for Science & Technology, Sudan
Ismail Ibrahim Elmunsor, Sudan University for Science & Technology, Sudan
Babiker Mohammed Mahgoub, University of Bahri, Sudan
A. G. T. Babiker, Environment and Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute, Sudan
Striga hermonthica is a major constraint to cereals production in sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted at Sennar State (Sudan) to determine the herbicidal efficacy of chlorsulfuron, 2,4-D and their tank mixtures on Striga incidence and  sorghum (cv. Wad Ahmed) growth and yield. Striga emergence in the untreated infested control was 1, 6 and 25 plants/m-2 at 45, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS). Chlorsulfuron at 2.38-3.75 g a.i. ha-1 reduced Striga emergence by 84-88%. 2,4-D at 0.38-0.76 kg a.e. ha-1 reduced Striga emergence by 20 -64%. The tank mixtures of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D reduced Striga emergence by 64-76%. The herbicides, each alone and in tank mixtures reduced sorghum height by 3-26.9% at 45 DAS. However, at 90 DAS all treatments displayed comparable height. Despite lack of significant differences chlorsulfuron and its tank mixtures with 2,4-D increased grain yield by 18.8-24.1% and 3.4-13%, respectively over the Striga infested untreated control. However, 2,4-D alone depressed grain yield. The results suggest that chlorsulfuron is a suitable candidate to be deployed as an integral component of an integrated Striga management. Further, the results indicate an antagonistic interaction between chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D.
Striga, Chlorsulfuron, 2,4-D, management, sorghum, yield.

End-users’ satisfaction with the quality of innovative healthcare technologies in Bahrain: a case study of hospital information systems
Mukhtar AL-Hashimi and Mishleen Aqleh, Ahlia University, Bahrain
The purpose of the study is to measure end-user satisfaction with the quality of the existing HIS’s implemented in public and private hospitals in Bahrain employing Delone and McLean’s framework. A quantitative method was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 615 participants of a convenience sample from 7 hospitals, including physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, pharmacists, admin and IT staff of hospitals who are regular daily users of the HIS system. Statistical analysis of 324 valid questionnaires indicated that in Bahrain, System Quality, Information Quality and Service Quality are primarily positively related to end-user satisfaction, and the end-users are generally fairly satisfied and have a good impression of the technical quality of the HISs they are using. The study underlines the need for improvements in end-user training, system availability, response time, interface and remote accessibility. This study contributes to the understanding of medical informatics experiences within the Middle East.
Keywords: Healthcare innovative technologies, hospital information systems, success model, user satisfaction, system quality, information quality, service quality, Bahrain, HIS.
Nutritional status of inpatient drug addicts and the impact of Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) intervention on recovery

Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Purpose: Examine the nutritional status of inpatient drug addicts and determine the effect of nutritional education and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention on recovery.
Methodology: This study will be conducted on the admitted patients who are under detoxification at a drug addiction treatment hospital. Addiction history, socioeconomic, anthropometric measurement, biochemical and physical examination, diet history will be examined. Nutritional Education sessions for the patients and the dietetic staff will be conducted. Medical nutrition therapy intervention effect will be studied.
Expected Outcomes:  Addicts expected to be malnourished, nutrient deficient. MNT Will improves the recovery. Personalized nutrition counseling and inclusive nutrition education programs will increase recovery chances.
Practical Implication: Nutritional education and MNT intervention will enhance the detoxification process, speed recovery and lessens the hospitalization period of addict patients and the economic burden upon governments.  More dietitians will be employed at addiction hospitals.
Social Implication: Create a productive, healthful lifestyle by managing addiction healing process.
Originality and Value: Examining and emphasizing the key role of MNT intervention and nutritional education in detoxification process.
Keywords: Addiction, Nutrition, Therapy, Recovery, Detoxification, Intervention, inpatient.

Closing the digital divide: a path towards sustainable knowledge-based inclusive development
Amer Al-Roubaie, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Modern information technologies have empowered our capabilities to increase productivity and sustain development. In particular, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become a powerful tool in sharing information, creating knowledge and diffusing technology. The majority of the developing countries are still behind in their readiness for use of ICTs in development. The concept of digital divide refers to the gap between those who are connected to the information society and those who are not. In the information age, access to information plays a key role in improving the socio-economic well-being of nations by fostering economic growth and poverty alleviation. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance use of ICT technologies in bridging the digital divide. Sustainable development builds bridges between the present and future generations. In recent decades, rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization, climate change and pollution have increased the risk of environmental degradation hindering the process of sustainable development. Closing the digital divide entails building capacity that strengthens a country’s ability to obtain information, create knowledge and improve education. ICTs facilitate connections to global markets providing greater access to information, skills and knowledge necessary for bridging the digital divide.

Bahrain Parks: cloud platform for planning, designing and managing public parks
Joao Pinelo Silva, University of Bahrain, Bahrain
The paper describes Bahrain Parks, an experimental cloud platform under development by the University of Bahrain and the Ministry of Works, which serves the stakeholders of public parks. The platform leverages environmental and user data to information relevant for maintenance, planning and design decision-making. Design attributes are made available with real-time categorised user counts and rating provided by users. We describe the local context and the features of the tool, followed by its integration in the routines of maintenance and design teams at the municipalities, and planning and design teams at the Ministry of Works. The digital, real-time, and centralised nature of the platform allow for the incorporation of sensor-based data, augmenting its integration in established and new workflows while tracking performance metrics. The initiative embodies the essence of a digital-age model of governance, with efficiency, transparency, public participation, and the well-being of the population as core values.
Keywords: Bahrain, sustainable development, built environment, public park, cloud service, public participation, park design, smart city, design efficiency, evidence-based design.

Sustainable intra GCC trade - too little to analyze or are we missing something?
Subhadra Ganguli, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Purpose: The GCC was formed in 1981 for improving cooperation and accelerating economic development in the region. Although the common currency remains a distant reality even today, a Common Market and Customs Union have been created for further cooperation of the six member states. According to Optimal Currency Area analysis by Robert Mundell (AER, 1961) trade between countries in the region is an important precursor for the single currency to be adopted for the region. Recent efforts of diversification have been adopted by the GCC states to mitigate the influence of adverse oil prices on the stability and sustainability of these economies. This paper analyses trade patterns within the GCC to explore the potential success of a single currency in the GCC region.
Design/methodology/approach: This empirical paper analyses detailed patterns of merchandise and services trade between the GCC states during 2005-15 with specific focus on concentration, diversification and similarity of (export and import) trade. The paper employs quantitative methods using time series analysis and relies on publicly available databases provided by UNCTAD, World Bank, IMF, EDB Bahrain and WTO. The paper has been influenced by Robert Mundell’s theoretical construct of the potential success of the single currency within the OCA (American Economic Review (1961).
Findings: The paper concludes that although Bahrain’s exports show dissimilarity when compared with other GCC states, its imports appear very similar. The other five GCC states show similarity among themselves in both exports and imports. Among other things, the paper analyses patterns of diversification within the GCC itself. Since diversification metrics are usually lagged indicators, the paper concludes that by the time diversification results are discernible within each of the GCC economies, trade volumes and patterns would have reached substantial levels between these countries.  This trend will not only bring about sustainable intra-GCC trade and development but also provide support for the single currency economic zone.
Originality/value: This paper considers both GCC-wide trade data and diversification efforts of its members within a quantitative analytical framework. The results of the paper will be of value to GCC policymakers by providing a clear rationale for boosting trade and diversification with the long term goal of a single currency.
Keywords: GCC, OCA, international trade, concentration, diversification, similarity index, sustainability.

Water governance and technologies in the South-West national capital region of Delhi: challenges of transformative sustainable change
Pranav N. Desai, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Purpose: The significance of water governance and inclusive urbanisation is reflected in the recently launched sustainable development goals. The present study is an attempt to focus on the Gurgaon-Manesar urban complex that forms a part of one of the world’s top fifteen global mega cities and likely to witness greater strains of urbanisation. Despite planned structure, this region lacks a proper mechanism for adequate water, power supply, and sewage handling mechanisms. Groundwater is the primary source of water supply while the construction sector is the major consumer. This unsustainable consumption of water has led to some deterring consequences.
Methodology/Approach: To analyse the sustainable use of water and technologies, the present study will attempt to combine the eco-innovation system perspective with the pathway approach. Primary data will be generated through interviews with the NGOs and planners.
Findings: The major thrust will have to be on the augmentation of water resources, greater participation, and government interventions.
Keywords: Change, Development, Governance, India, Sustainability, SDG Technologies, Transformation, Water.
Re-writing medical textbooks- a prerequisite for building better clinicians in Africa
Innocent Abi and John Odo Ibu, Benue State University, Nigeria
Textbooks are vital tools in the training of medical students. In Africa, there is a huge deficit in terms of literary medical works compared to the western world. Ultimately, this leaves the aspiring African clinician at the mercy of the western authors when it comes to acquiring knowledge about local health issues. The textbooks we use in teaching pre-clinical medical students in Africa are by foreign authors and fails to adequately capture local content. Poor funding of medical research by African governments has left the output of local authors dismally low. Reliance on foreign authors in writing our pre-clinical textbooks has left disconnect between the pre-clinical and clinical stage of the medical training in African medical schools. Paying close attention towards bridging this gap by stimulating African medical researchers towards developing pre-clinical medical textbooks that reflect the African peculiarities is of topmost importance; in order to raise high quality clinicians on the continent.
An investigation of the utilization of energy and water conservation technologies in Bahrain: entrepreneur opportunity

Mukhtar AL-Hashimi and Sayed Dheya H. Ahmed, Ahlia University, Bahrain
The study investigates public awareness of the government energy conservation programs and people’s willingness to purchase products related to Electricity and Water Conservation Technologies (EWCT) for the purpose of creating business opportunities based on customer acceptance of and preference for (EWCT) within the Kingdom of Bahrain. A review of the literature contributed to the development of the theoretical and conceptual research framework. Quantitative approach questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of 400 Bahraini households, of which 350 were completed and returned. The questionnaire obtained information on respondents’ demographics, property profile, awareness of the government energy conservation programs, customer needs, and willingness to purchase EWCT. Demographic findings are reflective of the country’s population, and findings indicate that Bahraini households are willing to implement EWCT appropriate devices in their homes. Market feasibility and business model for EWCT business technologies were developed based on these findings. This study assesses the market potential for EWCT in Bahrain.
Keywords: Conservation technologies, Bahrain, customer preferences, government program, EWCT acceptance, technologies, awareness.

FDI inflows spillover effect implications on the Asian-Pacific's catching up process

Elsadig Musa Ahmed and Rahim Kia lashaki, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia
Purpose: This paper examines the influence of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows on the catching up process developed by labour force, physical capital, human capital, absorptive capacity, and telecommunications investment on selected Asian-Pacific’s sustainable productivity growth.
Design/methodology/approach: A panel data for the period of 1970 to 2012 was used. The modified extensive growth theory model that is based on output approach was applied. Both growth accounting and econometrics approaches were considered in estimating the parameters of variables in first step and in the second step productivity indicators were calculated.
Findings: The results show that the FDI inflows and inputs used are input driven that was generally more prevalent than total factor productivity (TFP) growth driven in most Asian countries under study and based and highly dependent on FDI inflows and human capital development. This is indicating that the FDI spillover effects (absorptive capacity) had insignificant impact on these economies. However, Japan, South Korea and China showed technology transfer or what so called FDI spillover effects.
Originality: This paper showed that human capital provides the potential effects of FDI spillover to enhance the economic growth. Meanwhile, the contribution of human capital offers the strongest evidence in influencing GDP and catching up process of these countries.
Keywords: FDI Spillover, Asia-pacific, TFP, catching up process.

Entrepreneurship education & training: a gateway towards a diversified and knowledge-based economy in Qatar

Yagoub Ali Gangi, University of Khartoum Sudan & Ahmed Bin Mohamed Military College Qatar
Many GCC countries had experienced an unprecedented economic difficulties during the period of international financial crisis of the 2008-2009. During this period all these countries went through a large budget deficit and some of them had for the first time suffered from internal debt problem. These economic difficulties has happened again during the rapid fall in oil prices that has taken place since the late 2014. The government of these countries have been trying to avoid the consequences of such problem by designing and embarking strategic plans that aim for economic diversification. These plans involve many policy packages and initiatives that all directed toward economic diversification and sustainable growth. For example, in 2008 Qatar has launched its Qatar National Vision 2030, supported by its six years plan that both aim for transforming Qatar economy into diversified and competitive knowledge-based economy (QNV 2008). Along the same line Saudi Arabia has launched its 2030 development vision that put economic diversification as its main goal. This is a trend evident in many other GCC countries. Entrepreneurship development is one of the area embraced by these countries to help in diversifying their economies. Beside other policy packages, entrepreneurship education and training programs has been introduced as a policy instrument to foster innovation and enhance entrepreneurship development. This initiative is based on the belief that entrepreneurship education and training can help in developing attitudes, knowledge, and skills associated with the practice of entrepreneurship in countries. Moreover, it is argued that entrepreneurship education could help in building strong personal character and equip students and trainees with the right set of skills and knowledge for establishing their own business and thereby contribute in providing jobs for people in different sectors of the economy ( Efe 2014, Anho 2013, Anho 2011). Emanating from these kind of argument considerable attention has been focused upon entrepreneurship education and training throughout the GCC countries. Therefore government in these countries universities and training institutions in these countries to incorporate entrepreneurship courses and programmes to equip students with entrepreneurial competencies and thereby contribute in fostering innovation and promote entrepreneurship sector. Moreover, universities across these countries were committed to encourage their staffs to move their curriculum and teaching strategies to a more entrepreneurial mode (Gibb et all 2012). Qatar as one of GCC countries, poverty problem or unemployment issues among its Qatari citizen that drives its policy toward entrepreneurship education. However, its policy attempt to introduce entrepreneurship education is justified by their need and intention to stimulate entrepreneurship as enhancing factor to contribute in building knowledge-based and diversified economy, in which Qatari citizens and their ideas and capabilities are the main source of economic activities and wealth. The National Development Strategy 2011-2016 (NDS), which derived from the Qatar National Vision (QNV) 2030, identified specific objectives to encourage SMEs and entrepreneurs. The government has introduced a number of measures to achieve those objectives, including the creation of a government agency to be in charge of stimulating entrepreneurial activities and modernizing business regulations. Despite the fact that entrepreneurship education and training has been introduced in Qatar for many years, few studies has been undertaken in this area and the body of available research remains limited. Moreover, little exploratory research has been carried out to investigate the content, learning strategies, and effectiveness of the entrepreneurship education and training programs. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the relevancy of these programs for the local society of the country. The objective of the present paper is to explore the experience of entrepreneurship education and training in Qatar. The purpose for this exploration is shade some light on Qatar’s experience and give some insight on their strength and drawbacks if exist. The carry out of this study is justified by the need for a common understanding of the important of entrepreneurship education and training for Qatar economy and its role in enhancing Qatar’s need and intention to create knowledge-based and diversified economy. The study try to get answers for four main questions: What is the nature and scope of entrepreneurship education and training programs provided by different institutions in Qatar? Who are the teachers at and beneficial learners from these programs? Has the entrepreneurship education and training programs in Qatar succeeded in transferring an actual business skills and technical competencies to beneficial leaners and thus preparing them for a business career. How are the entrepreneurship education and training programs impacted on Qatar economic growth and structure? These question will be addressed to the economic diversification and creation of knowledge-based economy. Secondary Data for this paper will be collected from different government published document. Whereas primary data will be collected via qualitative techniques by interviewing government officials, trainers, university faculties and practicing and potential entrepreneurs who benefited from entrepreneurship training and education programs.

Key References:-

  • Anho, J.E. (2011), “Impact of Entrepreneurship Education and Training on University Graduates for Sustainable Development”, in E.A. Arubayi, N.E. Akpotu and E.P. Oghuvbu (Eds.) A Book of Reading: Education and Training for Entrepreneurship.
  • Anho, J.E. (2013), “Recreating the Management and Administration of Adult and Non-Formal Education Vis-àvis Entrepreneurship Education for Unemployment and Poverty Eradication”, A paper presented at the Conference of Association of Nigeria Teachers (ASCONT), Enugu.
  • Efe, A.J., (2014), “Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacaa for Unemployment, Poverty Reduction and National Security in Developing and Underdevelopment Countries”, American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol.4 No.3.
  • Gibb, A.; Haskins, G.; Hannon, P.; & Robertson, I. (2012), “Leading the Entrepreneurial University: Meeting the entrepreneurial development needs of higher education institutions”. University of Oxford, Said Business School.
Impact of junctions on the Performance of Position-based Routing Protocols for VANETs: a case study-smart cities
Ali Mohammed Mansoor and Aznul Qalid Md Sabri,University of Malaya, Malaysia.
The Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is an emerging area for smart cities as observed in last few decades. However, there exist some hurdles for VANET, which need to be cope up for it’s fully implementation in smart cities. The routing is one of the main factors for having effective communication between smart vehicles that need to be addressed smartly. One factor, which effects the communication between the vehicles, is the junction points that come in the way. The traditional routing schemes lack to address the junction problem occurred during the two point of communication. Therefore, this article works out to analyze the performance of existing position-based routing protocol for inter-vehicle ad-hoc network considering the impact of number of junctions. This simulation evaluates different position-based routing protocols such as IDTAR, GyTAR, A-STAR and GSR based on road topology and number junctions. As a result, the protocol IDTAR has less end-to-end delay and high packet delivery ratio in terms of number of junctions as case study of smart cities. This concludes that IDTAR can be adaptive to smart cities communication with some consideration in terms of its security, compatibility, reliability and robustness.
Keywords: VANETs; Greedy Routing; Dijkstra algorithm; Glomosim; VANETMOBISIM; CBR, TWO-RAY.

Sustainable Growth and Development: Why do Digital Disruptions Matter?
Dr. Moazzem Hossain, Griffith University, Australia
Mohammad Samsul Hoque, Bangladesh Civil Service, Department of Shipping, Bangladesh
Purpose:  In a developing country context, the following are important issues to achieve sustainable growth: innovation, transformation of society, sustainable goods governance (both national and local), etc. The major issue at present is the way changes are taking place, a transition to get rich. Some nations are on the verge of having relative prosperity, but unwarrantedly kept the issue of efficiency at bay in the era of digital revolution. In the era of economic globalisation, the efficiency issue has been certainly put in the back burner. This makes the wealth distribution unequal, and the efficiency issue has been kept out of the growth equation, in the sense that, let us allow the cake (Gross Domestic Product, GDP) to grow more and the share of the cake by the society (distribution of income) would take its course; it can look after itself in its own right. Unfortunately, this has not been found true, so far. This study investigates how and why the digital disruption makes an economy grow unsustainably.
Design/Methodology/Approach:  Digital disruption has been investigated with secondary information recently published in a study of the Australian Productivity Commission (APC) of the Australian Government. This approach is relevant for any subsequent study conducted in the area.
Findings and Limitation:  The paper identifies the major areas of disruption of digital technology, particularly from demand and supply side points of view of the computer hardware and software elements.
Original Value:  The study will make an original contribution towards identifying the issues surrounding the digital disruption debate presently in place in both the developed and developing country context. The case examples of Bangladesh will present a picture of the government’s commitment in approaching digital technology with the limited resources available, and collaboration with multilateral and bilateral agencies such as UNDP, USAID, respectively.
Keywords:  Sustainable growth and development; digital disruption; Bangladesh; Australian Productivity Commission