Abstracts 2018

The following papers have been submitted for consideration for presentation in the conference and publications in the Outlook 2018:

Challenges to sustainable development Public-Private Partnerships: customers, employees and investors (Beverlee B. Anderson and Catalin Ratiu)
Prof. Beverlee B. Anderson and Dr. Catalin Ratiu, California State University San Marcos, USA
Purpose: The purpose is to explore where alignment of goals of customers, employees and investors are compatible with SDG goals. Approach: The design is to use secondary data focused on customers, employees and investors. Consumer behavior data on issues related to SDGs, research on employee  work motivation, and the goals of investors, both institutional and individual, are investigated.
Findings: To develop effective PPP the goals and behaviors of customers, employees and investors must be recognized, considered and addressed. The goals and priorities of these entities are not always well aligned with SDG goals. Finding common ground for actions may require compromises by all.
Originality/value:  The paper addresses some issues seldom addressed in SDG public-private partnership writings.
Practical & Social Implications: While a few PPPs may be successful, to achieve significant gains in advancing the SDG agenda, there must be “buy-in” from relevant stakeholders associated with the partnerships.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Public-private partnerships, Consumer priorities, Employee goals, Investor desires.
Public Private Partnerships and sustainable urbanization development: evidence from China (Wei Xiong and Dajian Zhu)
Dr. Wei Xiong and Prof. Dajian Zhu, Tongji University, China
Abstract: Public Private Partnership (PPPs) show increasing popularity in the past 30 years around the world. PPPs resolve budget problems and increase efficiency in the delivery of infrastructure and public services. Recently, PPPs are regarded as instruments to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs), so we propose a conceptual framework for the sustainability-based PPPs. Following the Q methodology, we collect expertise on how PPPs influence sustainability and what are the governance experiences. Furthermore, we evaluate the opinions through a questionnaire survey in China. We find that the respondents generally support the sustainability-based PPPs, but the government, the private sector and the academics hold different attitudes, which are optimistic, neutral and pessimistic, respectively. The result suggests that, in order to restrict the private sector’s focus on short-term interest, it is important to hire professional consultancies, control government’s payment obligation, secure value for money, increase contractual flexibility and restrict early withdraws of equity-holders.
Keywords: Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), sustainability, urbanization, Q methodology.
Renewable energy for sustainable development and the impact on the global economic system (Shawqi Al Dallal)
Prof. Shawqi Al Dallal, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Abstract: Energy has been always the main driver of human civilizations. The past few decades have witnessed an ever increasing demand for fossil fuel with the consequence of alarming level of pollution to the atmosphere and environment in general. This situation may have further implications that can lead to the rise of sea level and the inundation of considerable sea shores. This situation is a serious threat to human settlement and activities. Renewable energy emerged as the ultimate environmentally friendly source of energy. Advancement in solar cells technology and other renewable energy systems has led to the growth of new industry worldwide. This emerging technology will have further consequences impacting heavily the daily life of mankind in the coming decades. It is expected that the switch from fossil fuel to renewables will be gradual at a first phase, but will be accelerated ultimately at an ever increasing pace as the fossil fuel is depleted. The passage from fossil fuel to renewables will have certainly an important impact on the environment, but also on the global social, economic and political systems. In this paper we discuss the unavoidable future reliance on renewable energy sources and its impact on the global economic system. Toward this end, we shall investigate the global energy needs map and the future market shaped by the technological development and its impact on the global world economy.
Public Private Partnerships and their relationship with Sustainable Development in Brazil (Danilo de Oliveira Sampaio)
Prof. Danilo de Oliveira Sampaio, Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Purpose: In Brazil public-private partnerships started from 2004 through a federal law, but the number of these partnerships is still small. There is a need in the country to involve private organizations more in projects that have different types of risks. Given this scenario, the objective of this research was to verify the model of private public partnership in Brazil and its relationship with Sustainable Development, pointing cases and presenting criticisms valuing the positive aspects and pointing out possibilities for improvements.
Design/methodology/approach: The research was of the bibliographic and documentary type, being consulted scientific articles and Brazilian Federal Laws as source of data. A search of cases of public-private partnerships in Brazil was also carried out in order to verify if there is a direct relationship with the promotion of Sustainable Development.
Findings: The results show that, despite being innovative, the Brazilian model of public private partnerships needs to be improved. Just removing the financial burden from the state and passing it on to private organizations does not solve the end situation of a partnership. There was more use of administrative concessions than of partnerships, with the financial sustainability of the partnership being highlighted more than sustainable development as the basis or relation of the signed cases.
Originality: The research carried out is original because it relates the Brazilian model of private public partnership with the promotion of Sustainable Development, mainly when suggesting proposals and public policies to be implemented by the Brazilian Government. In this sense, it is hoped to strengthen the policy and legislation to implement and mainly revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.
Keywords: Brazil, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Innovation platforms fostering community of practices in a low carbon economy towards 2030: transformative mechanisms and processes for realizing SDGs (Cristian Matti, Julia Panny, Blanca Juan Agulló and Irene Vivas Lalinde)
Dr. Cristian Matti, Climate—KIC & Utrecht University, Belgium
Julia Panny, Climate-KIC, Belgium
Blanca Juan Agulló, Climate-KIC, Belgium
Irene Vivas Lalinde, Climate-KIC and UNU Merit – Maastricht School of Governance, Belgium
This paper addresses climate change platforms with the purpose of highlighting the potential of public-private partnerships on the implementation of SDGs. It focuses especially on the EU, where policies and instruments are already in place. We put emphasis on the alignment of stakeholders as a community of practice by analysing the case of the EIT Regional Innovation Scheme (EIT RIS) Climate-KIC programme in the context of peripheral European regions. This study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of transformative mechanisms and processes in realising some of the 169 targets of the 2030 Agenda. For doing so, we codify and analyse different policy documents, reports, as well as a series of interviews and participatory processes of this programme run in 2016-2017.  The added value of this approach remains in the potential mobilization of resources for climate innovation by consolidating local knowledge and strengthening existing relational assets.
Keywords: innovation platforms, public-private partnerships, European regions, climate change, climate innovation, SDGs, Regional Innovation, local knowledge, community of practice.
Public Private Partnerships in history, theory and practice (Bhabani Shankar Nayak)
Dr. Bhabani Shankar Nayak, Coventry University, UK
There is plethora of literature on the concepts and history of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). The exiting researches locate the relevance of PPPs for budgeting and development planning in developed countries as well as developing countries. Such literature often draws out the advantages and disadvantages of these concepts with a strong focus on the financial implications to the shareholders. However, there appears to be less emphasis on the effects of these concepts and gaps between theory and practice of PPPs. This paper explores different dynamics of PPPs in theory and practice.
Keywords: Public Private Partnership, Theory, Practice and History.
Privatisation and women’s employment position in Sudan (Limiaa Abdelghafar Khalfalla and Elsadig Musa Ahmed)
Dr. Limiaa Abdelghafar Khalfalla, National Population Council, Sudan
Prof. Elsadig Musa Ahmed, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Purpose: This paper aims to explaining Women‘s employment status in this context is discussed in terms of; women’s employment before privatisation; discrimination against women in the labour market and work place; women’s redundancy experience; women’s experience of job seeking; women’s responses to the changing situation after privatisation; adaptive responses women have had to mitigate their worsening economic situation in Sudan.
Design/methodology/approach: In a qualitative analysis the study found that Women’s employment positions were strongly influenced by these redundancies. Both groups of respondents from the bank and the factory have shouldered the impact of privatization policies in a similar way, as the issues emerging were related to the roles undertaken by women at family/household level before redundancy. Major groups in the sample were from the female heads of households (FHH) group, particularly, women bankers. The other group is women sharing equally in the household budget, while sole breadwinner in the big family represents a core group.
Findings: The main findings are that impact of privatisation on women’s employment status appears to be mixed. It opens employment opportunities for some women in regions where there is high economic growth, but not for many in the least developed and poor economies, such as Sudan.
Originality: In the pursuit of increased productivity and lower labour costs, privatisation not only led to increasing rates of female unemployment, but also worsened working conditions of female employees. The limited employment opportunities in the formal sector, either in public or private domains, led women to stay for long periods of time unemployed, forcing them to look for other work alternatives, namely the informal sector.
Keywords: Privatisation, women employment position, Sudan, qualitative analysis.
How to make PPPs work for sustainability development? a case study of bicycle-sharing service in China (Huanming Wang, Bin Chen, Wei Xiong, Liuhua Yang & Dajian Zhu)
Dr. Huanming Wang, Dalian University of Technology, China
Dr. Bin Chen, The City University of New York, USA
Dr. Wei Xiong, Tongji University, China
Ms. Liuhua Yang, Tongji University, China
Prof. Dajian Zhu, Tongji University, China
Purpose: Many studies have discussed which factors affect the sustainability of public-private partnerships (PPPs). However, there are few studies that evaluate PPP sustainable development outcomes from a dynamic governance process. This paper aims to fill this gap.
Design/methodology/approach: Building on theories of complexity, this article constructs a model, which consists of institutional, cognitive and strategic complexities, to explain the PPP governance process to achieve sustainability. To test the model’s value, it is applied to the Mobike bicycle-sharing services in four cities of China: Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shenzhen.
Findings: The case studies indicate that: (1) sharing values and interaction are the basic premise of a successful PPP to solve sustainable development challenge; (2) policy development through learning and reinvention, as well as formal institutional design, while optional factors, could realize the PPP sustainable development goals.
Originality: Our contribution is the combination of PPP governance network theory and sustainable development. We take the work of PPPs to be a dynamic governance network process. The cooperation between public and private sectors is to address the sustainability, which highlights the conflicting interests, values, perception and behavior between various actors. Our approach provides a dynamic and interactive process to deal with the disputes.
Keywords: PPPs, governance, sustainable development, bicycle-sharing service.
*Note: The research presented here was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71303028) and the Social Science Foundation of Liaoning Province, China (Grant No. L16BGL013). We are thankful for their support.
Building digital capacity for sustainable development (Amer Al-Roubaie)
Prof. Amer Al-Roubaie, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Purpose: Digital technologies have increased communication among individuals, regions and nations by eliminating geographical barriers and promoting connectivity. E-services, driven by digital technologies, are helping countries to overcome the challenges of globalization including knowledge acquisition, innovation diffusion, information dissemination, poverty eradication and sustainable development. Sharing knowledge and information about the environment is crucial for environmental protection and sustainable growth. Digital connectivity could have a positive impact on future sustainability by improving public understanding concerning the risk of unsustainable environment.
Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the digital gap using published data to measure ICT readiness. The paper underscores the importance of global knowledge and information in building capacity for sustainable development and closing the digital divide. The developing countries can take advantage of globalization to foster economic growth and promote innovation.
Findings: Building ICT infrastructure facilitates connectivity and empowers local enterprises to invest in green technologies friendly to the environment. E-services, driven by digital technologies, increase the state capabilities to provide inclusive coverage of services to all people. This will increase competitiveness that supports technology transfer, innovation dissemination, knowledge creation and development sustainability.
Originality/value: Digital technologies play an important role in fostering change and improving the quality of life. The paper sheds some light on the socio-economic potential of digital technologies which will broaden our understanding about the information age.
Keywords: Digital divide, sustainable development, globalization, knowledge and information.
Public Private Partnerships in Social Services (Ronald McQuaid)
Prof. Ronald McQuaid, Stirling Management School, University of Stirling, UK
Although mainly used for infrastructure provision, for instance in transport, a major motivation for Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) may be to improve innovation and the efficiency and effectiveness of social services. To be effective there needs to be a comprehensive and transparent regulatory system and a transparent a priori and on-going evaluation process for deciding on PPP. This should be accompanied by support to disseminate good practice, provide concrete support, advice, training and other assistance to local bodies and sectors lacking PPP expertise. A motivation for such PPPs is budget enlargement to speed up development, which requires the PPPs to be more efficient over their lifespan, otherwise there may and future cost burdens on the funders. There appears to be large potential scope for the greater use of PPPs in many countries, but it is crucial that the mistakes made elsewhere are avoided and that a transparent and robust system of support is set up.
Individual factors affecting administrative innovation (Hala Abou Arraj)
Hala Abou Arraj, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
The purpose of this study is to provide an empirical assessment of the innovative capacity of the bureaucratic system in order to play a forceful role in Lebanon’s social and educational development during the coming decade. The research was conducted in fulfilment of a PhD dissertation done at the Lebanese University. There are two main goals for this article: The first goal is to assess the level of innovation among the Lebanese civil servants. This was done using a survey. The results indicate that innovation among employees could be enhanced greatly. The second objective is to test the impact of factors such as age and education on bureaucratic innovation. Findings suggest that young employees tend to be more innovative on the job; however, there was an inverse relationship between age and innovation but up to a certain level.  Furthermore, the results indicate that many structural and behavioral areas can be enhanced to increase administrative efficiency and effectiveness.
Keywords: Administrative innovation, bureaucracy, Middle East, education, age.
Dynamic sustainability of risk allocation in Private Public Partnership project (Bin-chao Deng, Yihong Wang and Han Li)
Bin-chao Deng, Tianjin University of Technology, China
Yihong Wang, Tianjin University of Technology, China
Han Li, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, China
PPP projects are usually characterized by “dynamic cooperative game”. The public and private sector enters into contracts to ensure the construction and operation of PPP projects; however, the inherent incompleteness of PPP contracts tends to result in the unclear definition of risks before contracts are signed, unreasonable risk allocation after contracts are signed, and the dilemma of risk allocation. Finally, the public and private sectors could be immersed into paradox Paratian liberal. Because of the incomplete contract, bounded rationality, transaction costs and cooperative surplus result in the dilemma of risk allocation in PPP, it is necessary to introduce the dynamic cooperative game theory into the optimization of risk allocation in incomplete contracts. This study aims to build a dynamic framework of risk allocation in PPP projects, which is divided into three stages: (1) prior agreement, which restructures risk allocation; (2) renegotiation of risk allocation, which remedies the initial contract and adjusts the transaction costs; and (3) arbitration, which involves irreconcilable remedy and forcible risk allocation. Risk sharing in incomplete contracts of PPP projects focuses on regulating the decision-making behavior of contract parties through a bargaining incentive mechanism, deals with dynamic sustainability of low efficiency of resource allocation problems that result from value interests and differences in risk appetite. 
Keywords: Private Public Partnership; sustainability; risk allocation; dynamic cooperative game, arbitration.
Islamic banking finance to small entrepreneurs: a case of Kenya (An Institutional Network Approach) (Mohammed Nurul Alam and Nurul Ayn Binte Noor)
Dr. Mohammed Nurul Alam, Associate Professor, Canadian University of Dubai, UAE
Nurul Ayn Binte Noor, Research Assistant, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada
Research Problem: It is known from the studies that the small entrepreneur sector in almost all developing and least developing nations is one of the neglected sectors of the economy. It not only suffers from the acute shortage of capital but also suffers from the paws of huge operating and other costs. A lion’s share of income of the entrepreneurs is spent to maintain these costs. Lenders normally do not care about the borrowers’ benefit. Besides traditional banking in many developing nations, a specialized bank called Islamic bank gives interest-free loans to this sector of the economy. Since the lending organizations under Islamic banking financing systems render services to their clienteles without interest and the nature of the financing is ‘in kind’ rather than in cash. The very lending procedures and the continuous supervision of loans contribute greatly to the borrower in minimizing their operating costs, maximizing profits and also enhancing the lender-borrowers network relationships.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present an empirical review on how and to what extent the First Security Bank in Kenya as one of the nation’s Islamic financing institutions finance to the rural-based small entrepreneurs and develop lender-borrowers network relationships through their financing activities.
Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology applied in the study is of a qualitative nature. An ‘Institutional-Network’ theoretical approach is used to study the phenomenon.
Finding: The study is based on the socio-cultural context of Kenya. The discussions in the article are mainly concerned with the empirical review of the impacts and influences of ‘Interest-free finance’ by the First Security Bank in Kenya. The finding also highlights how far the bank is successful in rendering interest-free services to their clienteles. Among others, the end result of the study also demonstrates the extent to which interest-free finance by Islamic banks contributes in developing lender borrowers network relationship, which ultimately contributes in minimizing borrowers’ costs and maximizing profit.
Research limitations/implications: The study was mainly concerned with small entrepreneurs in Kenya and the First Security Bank. It includes the empirical review and the financing activities of the bank towards the small entrepreneurs.
Practical implementation: The present study on Islamic Banking Finance to small entrepreneurs is based on a specific theoretical model; “The Institutional Network Approach,” the finding of which may also be applied to study both medium and large industries in a country.
Original value: An analysis based on the theoretical model mentioned above regarding the extent of a lender-borrower network relationship between Islamic banks and the rural-based small entrepreneurs is presented. Such an approach is not presently found in studying interest-free financing to the rural-based small entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Islamic banking finance, institution, network, the First Security Bank, Lender-borrowers; relationships, Kenya, small entrepreneurs.
Type: Case Study.
Mental health well-being within UN’s Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (Lade Olugbemi)
Lade Olugbemi, CEO, Nous Organisation, UK
This paper calls for an improvement in the mental health care in African countries. According to a recent report, only 0.5% is allotted to mental health, in a continent where 75% of the people who suffer from mental health are unable to understand or access the few services that are available. Part of the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 is to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all. There has been significant progress made in addressing physical diseases such as malaria, maternal death and HIV, however mental health has not received so much attention due to the impending stigma associated with mental health and the lack of information about the prognosis. Although high rates of poverty and unemployment can trigger off depression and anxiety, and substance abuse is a contributory factor to violence, there is growing evidence that indicates that a large proportion of the global health burden is due to mental disorders and this projection is projected to rise in many African countries. Women and children who have been affected by conflict, climate change and other environmental factors have been known to experience Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression and a host of mental health disorders. Mental health is a precursor to unrest and a few other challenges affecting Africa, and it would require a collaborative effort of both the public and private sector to address this surge, for there is no health without mental health.
Keywords: mental health, disability, mental health initiative.
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in domestic education sector: Pathways to achieving SDGs in Bangladesh (M Samsul Hoque & Moazzem Hossain)

M Samsul Hoque, Government of Bangladesh, Bangladesh
Dr. Moazzem Hossain, Griffith University, Australia
To make SDGs agenda a success, there is only 12 years to go. The public-private partnership (PPP) is regarded as a pathway to achieve the SDGs in Bangladesh. In this paper we will investigate how would this nation make SDGs a success in domestic education sector employing PPP approach in domestic vocational and higher education sector. In order to transform Bangladesh into a developed country as per its Vision 2041, the government needs to create an effective domestic education agenda to create a critical mass of globally competent citizens. While the country has been pursuing the vision in the aim of transforming itself into a developed economy with sustainable economic growth and consistent improvement of human and social development indicators by the year 2041, the new generation will need to compete with their peers around the world according to a recent dialogue organized by the local Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), an international development NGO. With a view to incorporate values of internationalism in the domestic education system of Bangladesh, the program was organized with a view to start a dialogue how to turn the aspiration into reality? It was emphasized that, “Students have to be capable of addressing the emerging challenges like climate change, migration, financial crisis and traditional and non-traditional security that cut across the borders, on the one hand, while they need to develop communicative skills and collaborative approach to discuss those challenges in the global platforms, on the other.” At present, there is no effective mechanism to create coherence between the core international curricula and domestic education agenda while establishing a useful link between international and national education system may create good opportunities for students to learn from different worldwide experience to foster their global citizenship skills, further emphasized in the recent gathering of experts in Dhaka, the capital. In view of the above, the present paper will investigate the PPP approach in the education sector of Bangladesh, particularly, with the vocational and higher education areas. In this respect both public and private sectors have major role to play under the UN SDGs agenda. The government needs to create an effective domestic education agenda with the support of private investment in order to develop an effective public-private partnership to attain SDGs by 2030.
Shoot regeneration from nodal segment of Acacia Senegal in Borno State of Nigeria (Njidda M. Gadzama, Jummai T. Kaldapa, Martha Tarfa & Bukar H. Kabura)
Prof. Njidda M. Gadzama, Jummai T. Kaldapa, Martha Tarfa & Bukar H. Kabura, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Purpose: Acacia senegal, is a valuable leguminous tree species of the sudano- sahelian region sought after for its economic and ecological importance. Developing in vitro propagation protocol for this tree in Borno State of Nigeria will provide a sustainable means of re-foresting and improving the nutrient of the degraded soil of the Sahel environment of Nigeria.
Design Methodology Approach:
Nodal segments derived from 6-months-old seedlings growing on the experimental farm of the Biotechnology Centre, University of Maiduguri, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.025–1.5 mg/l of 6-benzylminopurinee (6-BAP) alone and in combination with 0.02 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 – 1.6mg/l of kinetin (Kn) alone or in combination with 0.2 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA).
Findings/Results: The maximum number of shoots per explant (2.31 ± 1.24) and longest shoots (2.59 ± 1.38 cm) were obtained from MS medium supplemented with1.0mg/l and 1.5mg/l BAP respectively while 1.16 ± 0.71 shoots with maximum 2.34 ± 1.35 cm length were found in medium containing 1.2mg/l Kinetin after 4 weeks of culture.. Inclusion of NAA (0.02 mg L-1) with 6-BAP at the various concentrations in the culture medium was not effective in enhancing shoot proliferation. However, obtained results indicate that both shoot number (1.70 ± 0.0.95 ) and length (2.33 ± 0.92 cm ) were enhanced by adding 0.2mg/l NAA to 0.4mg/Kn.
Originality and value: This work would be the first attempt to propagate Acacia senegal by in- vitro method in Borno State of Nigeria with the view of generating reproducible protocol for future mass propagation of the tree crop in the State.
Keywords: Acacia senegal; in-vitro micro-propagation; gum arabic; induction; Murashige and Skoog (MS); 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4-D); Kinetin (KN); 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BAP); α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA).
Demystifying China’s environmental governance system 1973-2016: role of law, position of actor and linkage of policy (Rui Mu)
Dr. Rui Mu, Dalian University of Technology, China
Abstract: China is struggling between accelerating environmental protection and accelerating environmental damage. Although the central government is investing extensively in environmental laws and policies, China’s annual environmental goals have never achieved. What is often poorly recognized by top decision-makers is that the environmental governance system is so complex that multiple elements, including laws, policy items, actors and issues, have become intentionally or emergently entangled. Without knowing the roles, positions and interconnections of the system elements, people will be hard to find out the critical points for further improvements. Taking this challenge, this research conducts a retrospective analysis on the developmental trajectory of China’s environmental governance. The analysis helps us to pinpoint the role of law, the position of actor, and the linkage of policy that promote or prevent environmental protection; it can also question or reaffirm the effectiveness of the environmental laws and policies, and thereby aid China’s future prognosis and some recommendations. The methods that I apply in this research are inspired by longitudinal research approaches developed in sociology and organizational innovation and change. Longitudinal studies focus on revealing the developmental process/trend of an entity over a long period of time, often many decades. In this study, I employ the longitudinal approach to analyze how environmental laws and policies emerge, develop and possibly dissolve again over time. To operationalize the longitudinal study, we apply the Event Sequence Analysis (ESA) method. The fundamental components of the ESA method are “events” and “event sequences/ties”. Events can be anything that occurs in a certain place during a particular interval of time. If events are launched by certain actors, the events usually carry particular purposes and are expected to arouse changes. Event sequences concern the relations of the events in time matters. One event may lead to several diverging continued events. It may be also possible that several preorder events converge and contribute to the emergence of new events. Therefore, it implies that an event sequence can also be understood as an event network with a time order. A scrutiny on the environmental governance system presents new challenges. I find that China’s environmental laws play excessively roles in generating regulatory instruments, while create few windows of opportunity to foster market-based and voluntary instruments. This inevitably pulls too many actors of governmental authorities into the system, while pushes actors from industrial sectors and NGOs actively taking part in environmental governance. In addition, the lack of effective coordination between different categories of policy instruments has led to overlap in environmental protection efforts between different administrations and ministries, or even within the same ministry.
Keywords: Environmental governance; environmental policy; policy mix; policy interplay; complex system; China.
Combating Desertification in Sudan: Experiences and lessons learned (Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad)
Dr. Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Sudan
Problem statement: Sudan is the largest (2.5 million km2) and most seriously affected country by desertification in Africa. The arid and semi-arid lands cover an area of 1.78 million km2, which represents about 72% of the total area of the country (1). Sudan has collaborated with and contributed to the international efforts to combat desertification. It is one of the first countries that signed the UNCCD and assigned the NDDCU for the coordination of programs to mitigate the effects of drought and to combat desertification as a focal point. Since the thirties of the last century, programs to combat desertification and its component projects and interventions were being launched in the Sudan through technical and financial assistance (local and international) to improve land resources, production systems, and protection of the environment (2). Sudan, like other African countries, needs a plant cover, where an earlier study for the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicated that Sudan lost between 250000 to 1,250,000 Hectares of the total area of its forests since 2005, which was a main reason in expansion of the desertification phenomenon(2). Therefore unless serious and immediate action is pursued the gap between the sustainability of resources and the degree of exploitation will further widen (2).
Objectives: To review the efforts taken by Sudan in combating desertification from governmental and private sectors and to assess the reasons for the failure of the past efforts to combat desertification.
Methodology: Previous acts and agreements from national and international sources have been collected. The hazards of desertification and their impacts on economic and social lives have been evaluated.
Findings: Many conclusions and lessons were emerging from the previous experiences of governmental, NGOs, civil society and private sectors in implementing desertification programs in Sudan. The analytical review of Sudan desertification policies showed the lack of the intersectoral approach that integrates forestry activities and land use into the social, economic and developmental process of the country. They also lacked linkages to other sectors that use and actually compete for the available natural resources.
Values: Therefore it was recommended that, capacity building, public awareness, integration of NGOs, governmental sectors including research institutions, ministries and international organizations is urgently needed.
References:
(1) Republic of Sudan. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; NDDCU; SNAP; A frame work of combating desertification in Sudan in the context of the UN Convention to combat desertification, Khartoum,-Sudan, March 2006.
(2) African News. www.Xinhuanet.com (2016).
An exemplary case of a research & development collaboration between the Northern Municipal Council and local universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain (Mahmood H. Alaafia)
Mahmood H. Alaafia, Northern Municipal Council, Kingdom Of Bahrain
Purpose: Research and development (R&D) have become crucial to the success, sustainability and competitiveness  of any organization. For the municipal affairs in Bahrain, the R&D concept has risen as a core business area which can theoretically resolve the challenges encountered by municipal councils with respect to scarcity of resources, including budgetary deficit, expertise & competency, coverage, and scope. On the other hand, the students at universities are required to conduct research as a requirement of their study under the supervision of highly competent academics. It is common that most students face difficulty in choosing beneficial topics of research and therefore may conduct research that is of less value in order to complete the requirements of their degree. Based on the need of both sides, the idea of collaboration between the Northern Municipal Council and local universities on Research & Development has come into existence. To this end, the municipal council supports the universities in terms of providing them with a list of the council’s needs. These needs will represent different topics that will offer the universities the opportunity to investigate them by conducting proper research. The outcome of the research will benefit the society in general and Bahrain’s municipal councils in particular and will achieve sustainable development goals.
Findings: The universities have found this approach a pioneering idea and thereby have taken the necessary steps to establish a robust mechanism to make the cooperation effective. For the PPP to become more mature there is a need to promote this idea more strongly and effectively. It needs support from the highest official levels in the Kingdom, and the needs of employees and investors should be analyzed and recognized. To maximize the potential benefits of this collaboration, it is crucial that the concerned parties agree on the goals and priorities of such a major project.
Originality/value:  The paper addresses some issues pertinent to the collaboration and provides examples of research that has been done, in addition to outlining planned research in the future. Furthermore, the paper discusses examples of development areas that may help in shaping a road map as a basis for community partnership.
Practical & Social Implications: The success measure of this PPP is the ability to combine resources of the private sector and other organizations for the benefit and prosperity of society in general, which would accelerate tangible and intangible gains to the private sector in the long run.
Keywords: Research and development (R&D), Sustainable Development Goals, Public-private partnerships (PPP), society priorities, scarcity of resources, council’s needs.
Migration and the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 Agenda (Olivia Joseph-Aluko)
Olivia Joseph-Aluko, Reinvent African Diaspora Network (RADET), UK
This paper explores how migration can be a driving force for tackling inequalities within the Sustainable Development Goals. Migrants are vulnerable people and are easily subject to poverty, inequality, exploitation and human trafficking.  Economic migration  and forced displacement have raised new concerns that can be best addressed by a multidimensional public and private sector response. The Migrant Mediterranean  crisis in which it was reported that over 5,000 men, women and children have drowned or rather disappeared as of April 2017  clearly highlights the failures of the  International community. The private sector such as human rights groups, charities and  other none governmental organisations  who sometimes have been discouraged by political leaders in Europe have often provided support for new migrants and refugees. With little or no assistance from the government, they provide different initiatives to assist economic migrants and refugees  in their resettlement into their new country through the provision of accommodation, education and employment. Migration is a complex growing issue, and it would require the joint effort of both the public and private sector to  bring about practical solutions.
Keywords: International migration, brain drain, returned migration, refugees, displacement.
Towards modelling diaspora contribution as agents for development (Adil Ahmed Dafa’Alla and Elmouiz Siddeg Hussain)
Dr. Adil Ahmed Dafa’Alla and Mr. Elmouiz Siddeg Hussain, Airbus UK
Purpose: To conceptually model the economic contribution of the Diaspora as a public private partnership to promote business, investment and industry both in their host and countries of origin.
Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research methodology is used in order to understand the huge potential that the Diaspora may have in benefiting the economic growth in their host countries, effecting economic and industrial development in their countries of origin as well as boosting their own personal investment portfolio through utilising the expertise they gained and links they developed. This can conceptually be built as a triangular model for public private partnership.
Findings: The diaspora population is rising steadily. Over 200 million people live outside their country of birth. Their host countries benefit from their skills and innovation. However, although the role played by diaspora in the development, poverty reduction and reconstruction of their countries of origin is significant, this role is not fully recognised neither by their host countries nor their countries of origin. There is a powerful triangle of Diaspora, host and countries of origin that can potentially be used to promote business, investment and industry both in the host and countries of origin. This presents the Diaspora, in partnership with their host and countries of origin, as a potential tool for achieving sustainable development and fighting poverty. This is a step towards achieving the UN sustainable development goals for 2030.
Originality/Value: The role of diaspora in “FIRE-FIGHTING” economic crises in their countries of origin is well covered in the literature. However, very little was highlighted about the benefits they bring to their host countries, both in economic terms and source of innovation. This paper aims at widening the scope to look at the Diaspora as global agents for sustainable development, and model their contribution as public private partnership between the diaspora, host and countries of origin.
Keywords: Diaspora, partnership, sustainable Development, industry, business, investment, model.
Ecological vulnerability evaluation in West China: evaluate vulnerability and its synergy degree with government performance (Yan Li)
Dr. Yan Li, Dalian University of Technology, China
Purpose: In recent years, ecological crises caused by ecological vulnerabilities in western China occur more and more frequently, and the crises even begin to spread to other districts. Both the local governments and the central government take the fire-fighting policies to deal with the ecological vulnerabilities. This calls on us to probe into the problem and find the efficient pre-control methods to step out of the plights.
Design/methodology/approach: We firstly develop the PSR model based on the actual situation of the ecological vulnerabilities in the western China. On the basis of the new PSR model, we propose a pre-control model which mainly emphasizes evaluating the western vulnerabilities and the synergy degrees between the western ecological vulnerabilities and the performances of the local governments. Under the guidance of the evaluating results, the local governments and other organizations could respond efficiently, effectively, and economically. Although a lot of work has been done, there still exist a great number of problems to be solved so that the pre-control work could be done smoothly.
Findings: We find that evaluation is essential to prevent the vulnerabilities is to evaluate it. Then a pre-control concept model is developed to evaluate and intervene the vulnerabilities. To carry out the pre-control model, we could use a series of evaluation equations to measure the single vulnerabilities, overall vulnerabilities, vulnerability changing trends, and the synergy degrees between the western ecological vulnerabilities and the performances of the local governments Under the guidance of the evaluation results, the local governments and other organizations could choose the proper pre-control measures from the strategy matrix to respond to varied ecological vulnerabilities.
Striving for environmental excellence by controlling future brownfields in Africa specifically for Ethiopia; a grey incidence decision-making approach (Mikiale Gebreslase, Yuming Zhu, Naveed Ahmad & Dawit Bekele)
Mikiale Gebreslase, Prof. Yuming Zhu and Naveed Ahmad, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
Dr. Dawit Bekele, University of Newcastle, Australia
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive literature review of brownfields in developed countries, extracting key dimensions of brownfields definition in different countries, to develop a consensus based pioneer brownfield definition and propose redevelopment guidelines in Ethiopia. Above all, the aim of this research is to design a research framework based on grey-incidence decision making approach to control future brownfields in African countries by taking Ethiopia as an example. Thus, under the umbrella of grey incidence decision making model and with the consideration of multiple-stakeholders, tight environmental and economic constraints, the proposed research framework integrates different criteria from economic, social, environmental, technical and risk aspects in to grey incidence decision making model and gives a useful guidance to control future brownfields in African continent as a whole and particularly in Ethiopia.
Design/methodology/approach: Data collection for the development of the definition was made by developing the questionnaire by adding different questions of brownfield. The questions were extracted from the definition developed by different countries. Moreover, this study utilizes the grey incidence approach to help government in making decision for the implementation of brownfield redevelopment project in the remediated sites.
Findings: A pioneer standard definition of brownfields and essential guidelines for brownfield redevelopment were proposed in Ethiopian context. Both these were tested and verified with the help of international literature and survey from major stakeholders.
Originality/value: This research has also a significant opportunity for African governments in following ways: Firstly, to recognize the significance of the issue of urban structure to African efforts to address sustainable development. Secondly, identify the potential for specific government policy frameworks for brownfield redevelopment to reduce city carbon emissions. Third, recommend brownfield redevelopment support from international development programs.
Challenges of trust in building employees' high performance in organizations with particular regard to the UAE (Khalid Alrawi and Waleed Alrawi)
Prof. Khalid Alrawi, Abu Dhabi University, UAE
Waleed Alrawi, MSU, Malaysia
Abstract: For businesses, trust is a fundamental component in ensuring competitiveness. The purpose of this exploratory research is to help the business community build trust with its various employees in the industrial sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Questionnaires were sent to the managers of 121 companies in three sectors of the economy (namely manufacturing, services, and agricultural sectors) representing a 52 percent of the industrial firms in Abu Dhabi Emirate, (according to Abu Dhabi Chamber of Commerce, 2016 Annual Report). Only 109 firms returned their forms and these forms were used in the data analysis representing a 90 percent response rate which was acceptable statistically. The aim of this exploratory research was to demonstrate why companies should invest in trust-building, and to explore, how trust issues manifest across industries, and to establish a link between employee trust and firm performance and to outline possible mechanisms through which the relationship may operate. Findings revealed that understanding trust and management perceptions which based on managers’ individual perception and a managerial style have a negative relationship with the perceived benefits of these creativity negligence factors. Only five motivators out of nine were found significant for motivating trust between the three clusters in the economic sectors in the sample. Analysis shows that management initiatives highlight the fact that not all of them are necessarily successful.
Keywords:Trust,
performance, employees’ loyalty, management, cooperation relationships, UAE.
Substances in Sudanese honey that inhibit breast cancer cells, reports on in vitro study (Rasha Alhaj and Alan Purohit)
Rasha Alhaj and Prof. Alan Purohit, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, UK
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Although breast cancer are generally oestrogen receptor positive initially, a substantial proportion become oestrogen receptor negative. Oestrogen receptor positive breast cancers are associated with a better prognosis than oestrogen receptor negative breast cancers as they are more responsive to hormonal therapy. Three different varieties of Sudanese honey collected from different parts of Sudan (south, west and east) were initially tested for their effects on the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The cell lines were grown in supplemented Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium for 3 days, following which a 2-day incubation with twenty times diluted honey was carried out. The diluted honey was treated as follows: Charcoal to adsorb small molecular weight substances. Ether extracted to remove ether-soluble substances. In addition to one hour at 65 ºC to assess temperature-stability of the test substances. At the end of the treatment the numbers of cell nuclei were counted on a Coulter Counter. All three varieties of honey, produced (40% – 85%) inhibition of growth of these cells. One Particular variety Western Sudanese honey significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 by 80% ± 5 and 50 ± 5 respectively. In conclusion, a large molecular weight soluble component of honey was found to have significant growth inhibitory effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Further work is required to fully characterise these substances as they may have roles to play in the prevention of breast cancer.
Promotion of Private Sector Participation (PSP) in Indian Ports (Shraddha Sathe)
Shraddha. S. Sathe, Shipping Corporation of India, India
As per the AT Kearney’s FDI confidence Index, 2017 India is the eighth most likely foreign direct investment destination around the world. In order to compete, India is stressing more on infrastructure development, one such focus area being transportation. Large investments have been made for the development of the transport sector in India. This has resulted in the expansion of transport infrastructure and facilities. There have also been impressive developments. These include the emergence of the multimodal transport system and reduction in the arrears of over-aged assets. In spite of these impressive achievements, the transport infrastructure has not been developed to the extent that it can effectively address the problems of accessibility and mobility needs for the movement of people and goods. It is estimated that it would be necessary to increase the level of investment by up to three to four times its present level in real terms in order to meet the existing capacity shortages and deficiencies and to accommodate the future growth of transport demand in India. As the introduction of new technology has been slow in the past, the expansion of capacity must be accompanied by upgrading of technology for all modes of transport. Development of Ports involves huge capital. Government of India is stressing on development of ports and diverting entire public investment for the same isn’t a feasible option. Hence, Government of India has called for private sector participation in the port sector and in turn is clubbing part of public investment with that of private investment. This way government intends to deliver best facilities for movement of people and goods. The paper discusses the importance of Indian ports and need for development of the existing port facility in order to compete in the world port market. Efficient movement of high volumes of freight over long distances generally requires seaborne transportation. The tonnage of goods transferred by sea increased substantially. The increase has meant a resultant expansion of port facilities, and an increasing share of private investment, by way of public private partnerships or through outright privatization. Given its deficiency the Indian port association has been taking essential measures to develop the Indian port facility. However, the financing, construction and management of port facilities give rise to a very wide range of risks affecting not only owners but also users of facilities and the public generally. These risks include risks of over and under capacity, damage to and by the natural environment, unexpected costs of construction and operation and losses arising from industrial disputes, organized crime and international politics. This paper examines the nature of the risks involved in the development and management of port facilities and suggests for an amicable framework to promote Private sector participation (PSP). In order to make Indian ports competitive, recently many projects have been approved and implemented as a part of Private sector participation (PSP) mode being Public Private Participation (PPP).
Keywords: Ports, Private sector participation (PSP), Private Public Partnership (PPP), government of India etc.
Use of Talbinah (Barley Broth) as a Pattern of Depression Management Among Saudi Female Medical Students (Nahlaa A. Khalifa)
Dr. Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Purpose: Depression prevalence and antidepressant medication usage have recently increased. This paper aims to study the effect of Talbinah (barley broth) as a prophetic evidence-based complementary medicine on depression, and to emphasise the importance of combining private and public Medicare in managing depression.
Design: A randomised clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of Talbinah consumption on depression on a sample of 42 female medical students. Self-administered questionnaires were used. The intervention group was given one serving of Talbinah on a daily basis in addition to their usual diet.
Findings: The depression score decreased in the intervention group (score = 8.69 ± 6.53) compared to the non-intervention group (13.3 ± 8.1), although the difference is insignificant.
Research Limitations: Advanced diagnostic approaches are needed to detect depression. Participants must be in a closed setting to control their food intake.
Practical Implications: Public-private Medicare collaboration and using diet in managing depression to reduce the use, cost and the side effects of antidepressant medication.
Originality/Value: The study has significant importance in broadening the scope of giving more attention for managing mental diseases, which come in parallel with sustainable development goal (3): Ensuring healthy lives and promoting wellbeing for all at all ages.
Keywords: Talbinah, Depression, Barley, Complementary, Evidence-Based, Mental.
The internal challenges facing Islamic Banking in Libya (Nassr Ahmad)
Prof. Nassr Saleh Mohamad Ahmad, Ghrian University, Libya
Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the main internal challenges facing Islamic banking in Libya. It is also aims at providing solutions to these challenges.
Design/Methodology/Approach: This study is an exploratory study therefore, based on literature review to challenges facing Islamic banking in general and in Libya practically. The major part of data consisting of secondary source is collected through research journals, internet, conferences, relevant books, government report and author’s experiences. Citation and literature discussion have been the major approach of this study.
Findings: Islamic banking in Libya is facing some internal challenges which require immediate action. These challenges include: (1) institutional challenges, and (2) operational challenges. Islamic banks have no excuse to overlook or turn a blind eye to such internal challenges. Islamic banking in Libya will make headway if and only if it can address these challenges objectively.
Research limitations: The external challenges is beyond the capacity of this study. Moreover, an empirical study is needed to provide more support to the suggested results of this study.
Originality/Value: This paper highlights an issue that has not received the needed attention, and it proposes the necessary solutions to the problems it identifies. Moreover, the findings of this study may be useful to policy-makers and legislators.
Keywords: Internal Challenges, Islamic Banking, Libya, Institutional Challenges, Operational Challenges.
Paper type: An Exploratory Study.