The following papers have been submitted for consideration:
Michael Busler, Stockton University, USA
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to 1) discuss and identifies the similarities and differences of innovation programs.
Methodology/approach: The research methodology used a quantitative approach (survey).
Findings: The findings of this study indicated the several similarities and differences of successful implementation of innovation programs worldwide.
Originality/value: This study makes a contribution to knowledge about the innovation programs best practice in developed and developing countries and adds value to practitioners such as government, funded organizations, institutions, and policy makers.
Keywords: Innovation, economic development, entrepreneurship, knowledge economy.
Dalia M Kamel, Fatima E Mirza, Fatima H Al-Zaki, Jenan J Al-Sehali and Zahra A Abdulla, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Purpose of the study: to have a data base about hand grip strength and other factors that may affect it among Bahraini university students.
Methodology: 77 female students from Ahlia University in Bahrain were included in the study. They filled a demographic data sheet and some anthropometric variables were measured.
Results: there were significant correlations (P<0.05) in hand dominance, Body mass index, lifestyle, each with the hand grip strength. However, there was no significant correlations (P>0.05) regarding handedness, keyboard usage hours, practicing skillful hand hobbies with the hand grip strength.
Conclusion: the factors that show a significant relationship along with the hand grip strength, should be taken in consideration when aiming to improve the hand grip strength for any individual who plan to increase his/her hand grip strength, whether they are healthy or with impairment.
Practical implications: predict the normal hand grip strength among female Bahraini youth.
Keywords: Body mass index, mid upper arm circumference, hand grip strength, total arm length, hydraulic dynamometer, handedness, life style.
Abderrahman Hassi, Hicham Amine and Hind Lebdaoui, Al Akhawayn University, Morocco
Global economic development has yielded several benefits and pressures on natural resources, ecosystems and environmental assets (Everett, Ishwaran, Ansaloni and Rubin, 2010). To tackle these human-induced effects, a ‘’Sustainable Development’’ (SD) scheme, along with indicators and objectives, has been adopted by the United Nations for worldwide application as a potential remedy. Nonetheless, this SD conception does not take into consideration ethics (United Nations, 2002:9). Therefore, the present research aims at developing a SD model from an Islamic perspective. Existing models lack theoretical and empirical foundations (e.g. Rkiouak, 2016). To develop an SD model, which is entrenched in the Islamic tradition, a three-phase methodology will be conducted. They aim at developing a conceptual framework, refining it and validating it by means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data consisting of pillars and indicators of Islamic SD will be gathered from various respondents working in the SD field across various majority Muslim countries.
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Model; Index; Indicators; Objectives; Islam.
Amani Al Abbas and Weifeng Chen, Brunel University, UK
Maria Saberi, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Many big companies and research organizations are following the new hot trend of using neuromarketing. This is due to them being desperate for any innovative technique to help break through all the customer and market confusions. Major corporations like Companies like CBS, Disney, Google , Frito-Lay and A & E Television, as well as some political candidates , have used neuromarketing to advertise and assess their marketing attempts. In addition Nielsen did in fact invest in NeuroFocus in 2008, adding reliability to the field. This new field has been criticized heavily in many aspects specially ethically when it comes to children. Researchers and other concerned parties voiced their concerns in many occasions. Advocates of neuromarketing, however, say neuromarketing is simply a more accurate barometer of consumer response than traditional focus groups. This research is aimed at assessing the impact of neuromarketing advertisements on children. This is carried out by establishing the two types of effects that can occur as a result of neuromarketing advertising: intended and unintended effects. The research present a conceptual framework to assess those effects on children in the context of neuromarketing.
Keywords: Neuromarketing, Advertising, Intended effects, Unintended Effect, Children.
Amani Al Abbas and Weifeng Chen, Brunel University, UK
The impacts of disasters due to global warming have risen exponentially affecting various countries. Philippines is one of the countries that is experiencing increased number of natural hazard events due to its geo-physical location. Thus, this paper aims to determine the socio-ecological resilience and its contributory vulnerability factors as bases for developing adaptive strategies and policy recommendations to reinforce the resilience level of selected agricultural communities in Barangay Bukay Pait. In particular, this study aimed to determine the level of socio-ecological resilience of the selected communities in Barangay Bukay Pait. A concurrent triangulation research design was used to ensure that the research questions are completely addressed, and the objective is fully achieved. Two hundred fifty (250) household head respondents and twenty-five (25) barangay officials were chosen using stratified random sampling. Potential implications based on the result of the assessment were also determined in this study.
Keywords: socio-ecological resilience, barangay bukay pait, implications for sustainable development.
Hasan Ghura and Xiaoqing Li, Brunel University London, UK
Purpose: This study aims to develop a theoretical framework to illustrate that oil-based countries can diversify and sustain their economies towards knowledge-based growth while appropriate institutions are effective for opportunity entrepreneurship.
Design approach: Hypotheses are proposed and presented in a theoretical framework.
Findings: Findings suggest that institutions play a moderating role between opportunity entrepreneurship and economic development. Institutions can stimulate entrepreneur’s behavior leading to economic growth. Propositions worth pursuing in empirical studies in the future are developed.
Practical implications: This framework offers a model for oil-based countries in resolving structural problems in responding to economic challenges.
Originality/value: A complete set of formal and informal institutional factors which are rarely examined in existing literature linking opportunity entrepreneurship and economic growth are considered in the framework. Insights offered by this study have implications on government policy changes in developing effective institutions.
Keywords: Opportunity entrepreneurship, Economic development, Economic growth, Institutional economics, Knowledge-based economy.
Kevin J Lu, Brunel University, UK
Mansoor Al Aali, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Literature shows that knowledge about course taking patterns is useful for decision making about enhancement of student academic performance in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs). Literature review and actual observation of student performance in HEIs showed that time to degree and GPA of students can be enhanced using course taking patterns characterized by contextual knowledge through Knowledge Discovery in Data Mining(KDDM) processes. However current KDDM processes do not have a mandatory contextual knowledge processing stage and hence may not be useful for implementation in HEIs unless modified to include one. This research uses Design Science methodology to contextualise KDDM process models (CKDDM). The CKDDM outperformed KDDM in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. The CKDDM that could be used for effective decision making especially pertaining to course taking patterns to optimize time-to-degree is a novel contribution. The implication will be better decision making in HEIs.
Purpose: The present study is an attempt to understand the global and domestic outlook of micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) sector, growth dynamics, issues and challenges for MSMEs exporters in India.
Design/methodology/approach: Around 500 export oriented MSMEs units belonging to the business sectors in India have been surveyed on the structured questionnaire.
Findings and implications: Survey found that, MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared with the growth rate of overall industrial sector. With its agility and dynamism, the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent world economic downturn. The survey also brought the operational problems of MSMEs exporters in India into light. According to the respondents, lack of awareness about export destination countries, lack of marketing capabilities, unavailability of finance and volatile exchange rate scenario, unskilled/untrained workers are the major issues for MSMEs exporters across the sectors surveyed. Difficulties in marketing and limited R&D lacks in various sectors covered under survey. Going ahead, since the MSME sector is crucial for the growth and development of the economy, it is imperative on the part of the Government to undertake focused and structural measures so that the benefits of the sector can be well reaped.
Originality/value: The growth of MSMEs sector would be critical to absorb growing workforce in India. The sector has potential to become next growth locomotive for the Indian economy. The paper suggests measures to minimize the operational problems faced by MSMEs stakeholders especially the MSMEs exporters in India to enhance its efficacy in the coming times.
Keywords: MSME Sector exports, growth dynamics, operational problems, R&D.
The purpose of the research is to design specific Supply Chain PMS in Mining Company , in anticipation of changes of mine strategies from surface mine into underground mine, unstable global economic condition, and decreasing of cooper prices, from 4.30 USD/lb in 2011 to 2.62 USD/lb in 2016, and expected to continue years come. Instead of using generic SCM performance indicator mainly focusing in operation scope, the research will use Balanced Scorecard (BSC) framework to formulate Supply Chain Performance Indicator into 4 BSC perspective : Learning & Growth, Process Internal, Customer, and Financial. The methodology of the research are starting from determine objective of SCM Vision & Mission, analyze internal competitiveness using SWOT technique, formulate Key Success Factor, develop BSC strategic objective, and determine performance indicator. The outcome of the study mining company can have an comprehensive supply chain model of performance indicator in driving strategy implementation based on vision & mission.
Keywords: Supply Chain, Performance Management System, Performance Indicator, Balanced Scorecard (BSC).
Bangladesh is currently ranked as one of the world’s most disaster prone countries. Approximately ninety seven percent of the total land area and all inhabitants are at risk of multiple hazards including tropical cyclones, earthquakes, floods, droughts, riverbank and coastal erosion. Food security is a challenge when a disaster heavily affects an area.
Purpose: The main aim of this research is to analyse how households themselves attempted to cope for food during major disaster events in Bangladesh.
Methods and materials: To achieve the objectives of this research, data on disasters and coping strategies for food were collected from the Government of Bangladesh and NGOs’ publications, local histories, journal articles in the peer reviewed literature, books, newspapers, magazines, annual reports and online hazard databases.
Findings: The findings suggest that coping strategies depend on types, severity and time of disaster and socio-demographic characteristics of the affected households. Generally the poor, agricultural and fishing communities whose livelihood depends are located in hazardous locations are found to adopt least preferable coping strategies for food during and following disaster occurrence.
Implications: Household resilient for food security could be improved through providing access to food for all class of people and undertaking preparedness and increasing household level capacity building programme.
Keywords: Household, Food security, disasters, coping and adaptation.
Tillal Eldabi, Brunel University London, UK
Purpose: The Information security management is proving to be an important topic of the modern world; in environments that will highly rely on digital technologies such as smart cities, information security management research is of high importance
Design/methodology/approach: organizational factors that influence information security management in smart city organizations are embraced from the literature, then tested empirically for validity and criticality.
Findings: the identification of the information security management related organizational factors that will most influence smart city organizations organizational performance.
Originality/value: The paper presents advanced information on the information security management in smart city organizations, the lack of research in this area and the criticality of the highlighted issues, creates high value for the conclusions and findings of this research.
Keywords: Organizational factors, Organizational performance, Information Security, Information Security Management, Smart cities, Smart city organizations.
The objective of this work was to verify in the academic journals and master’s and doctoral programs in Brazil, specifically in the area of management, as has been the study on smart and sustainable cities. The research was from January 2015 to December 2017. The study was bibliometric, descriptive and exploratory, with collection in the databases of master’s and doctoral programs of Administration and in the main academic journals qualified of management, according to the criteria of the Ministry of Education through the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education (Capes). After identifying 12 variables in the articles, dissertations and theses, it was verified that there are few academic studies about management in the field of smart and sustainable city in Brazil. There has been an increase in the number of cities and public organizations, special in energy, with themes in recent years, both in the academic field and public management.
Keywords: Brazil, smart cities, sustainable cities, sustainable development, Business Administration.
Many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (Mena) are currently witnessing a very high rate of urban growth due to the continuous flow of rural- urban migration, and the high rate of natural increase. Over 60% of the region’s population now leave in urban areas. The major cities in the Gulf countries have even higher rates of urban growth, the rates for Dubai and Riyadh are 7% and 6% respectively Some cities like Cairo, Khartoum Casablanca, Amman and Riyadh are considered as Super Prime cities, as they constitute about one fourth of the total population in their respective countries. These high rates of population growth in many Mena cities, are however not matched by similar increase in health, education, housing, transportation and other basic services. The overcrowded urban settings lack basic services, which often lead to health, and social hazards such as violence, crime, traffic accidents, drug abuse, environmental problems and others. Children and youth are the most vulnerable groups and they have potentials of being adversely affected by these problems. The concept of Child Friendly Cities (CFC) was first introduced in 1996 during Istanbul UN conference on “Human Settlement” by UNICEF and UN Habitat. The concept is based on four general principles of UN Child Right Convention (CRC), namely discrimination, best interest of the child, the child rights to live, and respect child’s views. A city is child friendly, when it ensures that all children have the opportunity to grow to their full potential, access the recourses they need for their development, be cared for, and protected against forms of abuse, exploitation and violence. In a child friendly cities, children are encouraged to take part in decision making process that affect their lives. The present study will address the issue of CFC, by highlighting the concepts and definitions, and explaining the nine blocks to build child friendly cities. The study will show the efforts made by some Mena cities to make them child friendly. These efforts were encouraged and supported by the initiative of the Arab urban Development Institute (AUDI), and by the generous financial support from the Arab Gulf Program for development (Agfund).
Janet Kyogabirwe Bagorogoza, Makerere University, Uganda
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of the mediation effect of the HPO framework in the relationship between knowledge management and high performance in Financial Institutions.
Design/methodology/approach: We used a mixed methodological approach to investigate the development of KM and HPOs, employing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study adopts a cross-sectional design to collect data that was used to carry out the mediation analysis.
Originality/value: This methodology puts in evidence on less studied phenomena in the FIs. The evidence highlights the powerful influence of the HPO framework in improving organisational performance based on knowledge management that the HPO framework had an effect on high performance. Knowledge management did not have a direct effect on high performance, except through the full mediation of HPO framework.
Practical implications: The outcomes of the application was that Managers in FIs should use the HPO framework as a gateway for knowledge management to build HPOs.
Keywords: Knowledge management, the HPO Framework, high performance, Financial Institutions.
Adel Al Sarea, Ahlia University, Bahrain
Board gender diversity has been studied widely recently. There have been contradicted point of views regarding the possible outcomes of it. Empirical results were conflicted as well which motivates researchers for investigating more in the insights of this issue. This study aims to review literature in the area of board gender diversity and firm performance for identifying existing research themes and future opportunities to better understand the relation between board gender diversity and firm performance. Generally, there are two main perspectives related to board gender diversity, those are ethical and business perspectives. This study focusses on articles related to the business rationale of board gender diversity and its effect on firm’s outcomes. This review identified four main trends in the literature of Gender diversity, which are: organisational environment, firm performance and value creation, governance and policies, socio-economics and socio-cultural attributes. The paper concludes by identification of some gaps for future studies and finally the study suggested elaborating the work of previous studies to build a comprehensive conceptual framework that would consider the external and internal environmental factors affecting board gender diversity and firm performance relationship.
Keywords: Gender Diversity, performance, business case, firm outcomes, socio-economics, socio-cultural attributes.
Montaisr Abbas Hamza Khider, Ministry of Environment, Sudan
Moawia Yahia Babiker, Ekhtibarat Soil and Water Test Services, Sudan
Sufyan A. M. Ossman, Ministry of Oil, Sudan
Purpose: The great amount of the daily discharge wastewater from the oil refinery in Khartoum needs proper management as it contains high concentration of oil that limits its use for any irrigation practices or human use.
Objective: The objective of this work is to implement and assess the application of the Centrifugal Separation Technique (CST) in separating oil from refinery wastewater.
Methodology: wastewater samples we collected from the evaporation treatment ponds in different months and analyzed for oil content and quality assessment. The Wastewater samples (300 l) were pumped in the CST system, through a centrifugal filter for 12 hours. The separated samples were then collected in an outlet container and further analyzed for total aromatic hydrocarbons (TRPHC) and total aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons (TAPHC) concentrations.
Results: Analysis of the wastewater revealed the high concentration of oil that ranges between 1.70 mg/l to 95.7 mg/l. Other parameters e.g turbidity, pH, Ec, ammonia, sulfides and phenols also showed high values. Results also revealed that the concentrations of TRPHC and TAPHC and turbidity were reduced significantly after the CST method application.
Value: CST method is recommended to be applied to remove the oil from wastewater for further uses.
Keywords: Oil removal, Wastewater management, CST.
Rania Obead Ahmed, Jubail University College, KSA
Sustainable development is not anymore a choice but it became absolutely necessary, the only path to promote a better life for humanity is the sustainable development. Which mean improve human quality life witht affecting the environment system. Sustainable development should implement in different levels starting by the whole country strategies, then sustainable urban and rural design, then the neighborhood scale, and at last sustainable building’s design. The sustainable neighborhood is an important phase in creating sustainable development hence it is in a direct contact with the communities, therefore many sustainable practices should be implemented on the neighborhood scale. This paper will focus on applying some of the sustainable standards in an existing neighborhood to modify it to a sustainable neighborhood. The paper will cover four important areas in sustainable development Firstly, reduce and reorganize the parking area. Secondly, increase and redesign the open spaces. Thirdly, create safe and attractive walking paths. Fourthly, increase the vegetation and biodiversity and finally create a safe and secure environment.
Keywords: Sustainable development- sustainable neighbourhood- parking areas – open spaces – walkability – gardens – safe neighbourhood.
Husain AlSaeedi and Ammar Jarrar, Abu Dhabi Municipality, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
The Municipal Infrastructure & Assets Sector (MIAS) of Abu Dhabi City Municipality (ADM) has initiated the Irrigation Master Plan Project to provide a foundation for sustainable development of landscape irrigation design and management strategy which promotes low water demand through efficient irrigation networks. The Plan shall guide the development of both existing and future ADM’s irrigation infrastructure. The scope of the project, includes optimization of treated sewage effluent (TSE) for landscape irrigation, estimating water needs of future projects, according to Abu Dhabi 2030, in addition to preparing a hydraulic model of irrigation network, using one of the latest software programs for hydraulic modelling. It also includes the construction of spatial and temporal map of future irrigation water needs, in addition to the preparation of technical and financial plan for projects development and scheduling of such a plan. In addition, a comprehensive update of the irrigation manuals and specifications have been completed.
Keywords: Sustainability; hydraulic model; geodatabase; treated sewage effluent; landscape irrigation.
Elnayer H. Suliman, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan
The experiments were conducted in Gedarif State, Eastern Sudan to study the impact of climate change on human migration in Eastern Sudan during the period 2008-2014. The results showed that the productivity of sorghum has decreased in the southern parts of the state from 1500 kg/ha in the 1970s to less than 410.4 kg/ha at the present time (2014). Increasing rates of out-migration from the region to the city of Gedarif and other cities in Sudan has increased rapidly. Immigration to the region has declined. Populations may be migrating because the upper portions of the soil were removed by wind and water runoff and deposited in the low lands. Additionally, increasing proportions of sand, especially in the northern parts, and increasing loss of surface water (excavations – rivers – coves – Maat) by evaporation were observed. Other factors recorded that could account for this change include imbalance in values and social systems and high crime rates.
Elsadig Musa Ahmed, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Purpose: This paper aims to explaining bioeconomy as new stream of knowledge-based economy that existed in the new era of the information and communications technology (ICT).
Design/methodology/approach: The bioeconomy refers to the production of a wide range of goods and services, from plant, animal and forest-based material. It is more than just grain based bio-fuels or bio-diesel as extensively highlighted in Latin America. It’s related to biotechnology activities and other bio activities based on knowledge generated from the bio activities and extension of Knowledge-based economy.
Findings: The main concern of developing bioeconomy is the environmental damage through the undesirable output produced by the activities of bioeconomy. Moreover, the bioeconomy centered on research and development (R&D) collaborations across deferent sectors and public and private sector in order to breakthrough new products through invention and innovation.
Originality: For the bioeconomy to be realized and put in practice it should be well developed regulatory framework as a platform for the bioeconomy to be run and work smoothly.
Keywords: Bioeconomy, knowledge-based economy, environment, R&D, regulatory framework.
Rashida Abusin,University of Bahri, Sudan
Elfatih Ahmed, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan
Mohammed Hassan, Environment and Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute, Sudan
Nahid Abdalfattah Khalil, Sudan University for Science & Technology, Sudan
Ismail Ibrahim Elmunsor, Sudan University for Science & Technology, Sudan
Babiker Mohammed Mahgoub, University of Bahri, Sudan
A. G. T. Babiker, Environment and Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute, Sudan
Striga hermonthica is a major constraint to cereals production in sub-Saharan Africa. A field experiment was conducted at Sennar State (Sudan) to determine the herbicidal efficacy of chlorsulfuron, 2,4-D and their tank mixtures on Striga incidence and sorghum (cv. Wad Ahmed) growth and yield. Striga emergence in the untreated infested control was 1, 6 and 25 plants/m-2 at 45, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS). Chlorsulfuron at 2.38-3.75 g a.i. ha-1 reduced Striga emergence by 84-88%. 2,4-D at 0.38-0.76 kg a.e. ha-1 reduced Striga emergence by 20 -64%. The tank mixtures of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D reduced Striga emergence by 64-76%. The herbicides, each alone and in tank mixtures reduced sorghum height by 3-26.9% at 45 DAS. However, at 90 DAS all treatments displayed comparable height. Despite lack of significant differences chlorsulfuron and its tank mixtures with 2,4-D increased grain yield by 18.8-24.1% and 3.4-13%, respectively over the Striga infested untreated control. However, 2,4-D alone depressed grain yield. The results suggest that chlorsulfuron is a suitable candidate to be deployed as an integral component of an integrated Striga management. Further, the results indicate an antagonistic interaction between chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D.
Keywords: Striga, Chlorsulfuron, 2,4-D, management, sorghum, yield.
Mohammad Al-Saidi and Sally Saliba, Qatar University, Qatar
Purpose: The paper investigates future risks for the current water, energy and food supply infrastructure in the GCC region.
Design/methodology/approach: The aim is to frame the debate about resource security in view of risks arising from internal and external change drivers. The extraordinary process of growth in the last centuries shaped the organization of resource supply infrastructure. Using conceptual framing and a review of recent literature, the paper examines infrastructure vulnerability to internal (supply-induced) risks related to the categories of a) increased coupling of infrastructure, b) demographic and consumption changes, as well as c) temporal and spatial scale of infrastructure planning. It also reviews external global drivers of risk related to changes in a) markets, b) technology and c) the state-based international system.
Findings: The supply infrastructure of water, energy and food in the region are highly vulnerable to a multitude of risks arising from past rapid change and future uncertainties.
Originality/value: The paper provides a missing insight that focuses on risks instead of supply coverage and sector performance. It offers recommendations for adequate risk mitigation strategies.
Keywords: water, energy and food nexus, resource security, supply infrastructure, gulf council countries, desalination, food security.
The purpose of the study is to measure end-user satisfaction with the quality of the existing HIS’s implemented in public and private hospitals in Bahrain employing Delone and McLean’s framework. A quantitative method was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 615 participants of a convenience sample from 7 hospitals, including physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, pharmacists, admin and IT staff of hospitals who are regular daily users of the HIS system. Statistical analysis of 324 valid questionnaires indicated that in Bahrain, System Quality, Information Quality and Service Quality are primarily positively related to end-user satisfaction, and the end-users are generally fairly satisfied and have a good impression of the technical quality of the HISs they are using. The study underlines the need for improvements in end-user training, system availability, response time, interface and remote accessibility. This study contributes to the understanding of medical informatics experiences within the Middle East.
Keywords: Healthcare innovative technologies, hospital information systems, success model, user satisfaction, system quality, information quality, service quality, Bahrain, HIS.
In Indonesia mining industry, the performance measurement of occupational health and safety of company refer to target from government that emphasize on quantitative perspective such as number of accidents reported. It is unfair and frustrating companies that ran many programs and disbursed much cost but punished fail. The purpose of this paper is to provide Performance Management System (PMS) design that combines Modified Malcolm Baldrige (MMB) and Integrated Performance Framework (IPMS) framework, and Success Mapping (SM) approach. MMB can be used in benchmarking the current system, while IPMS is used in composing PMS. SM will be used for linking performance indicators as part of PMS designing step. The combination of framework and approach is possible to be done so that produce PMS system design that match with character of companies and business environment in developing countries that have poor database system and human resources as well as organization capability.
Keywords: Indonesia Mining Industry; Malcolm Baldrige; IPMS; Success Mapping; Poor Database; Poor Human Resources; Organization Capability; Occupational Health and Safety; Performance Management System Designing; Performance Appraisal.
Nahlaa A. Khalifa, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Purpose: Examine the nutritional status of inpatient drug addicts and determine the effect of nutritional education and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention on recovery.
Methodology: This study will be conducted on the admitted patients who are under detoxification at a drug addiction treatment hospital. Addiction history, socioeconomic, anthropometric measurement, biochemical and physical examination, diet history will be examined. Nutritional Education sessions for the patients and the dietetic staff will be conducted. Medical nutrition therapy intervention effect will be studied.
Expected Outcomes: Addicts expected to be malnourished, nutrient deficient. MNT Will improves the recovery. Personalized nutrition counseling and inclusive nutrition education programs will increase recovery chances.
Practical Implication: Nutritional education and MNT intervention will enhance the detoxification process, speed recovery and lessens the hospitalization period of addict patients and the economic burden upon governments. More dietitians will be employed at addiction hospitals.
Social Implication: Create a productive, healthful lifestyle by managing addiction healing process.
Originality and Value: Examining and emphasizing the key role of MNT intervention and nutritional education in detoxification process.
Keywords: Addiction, Nutrition, Therapy, Recovery, Detoxification, Intervention, inpatient.
Purpose: Paper contributes to existing data in kidney disease management, and postulating new claims in cupping and alternative medicine.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Methods in qualitative and quantitative literature review and statistical secondary data and interviews.
Findings/Limitations: Findings in vulnerable minority populations, as evidenced in chronic illness, diet, nutrition, and kidney disease treatment globally.
Original Value: Quality of life being a natural and divine right can be measured beyond scientific findings and empirical values. Improving treatment and finding cures in eradication of kidney disease.
Keywords: CKD, chronic kidney disease, cupping, extrapolation, government insurance, hijama, minorities, prevalence, societal.
Modern information technologies have empowered our capabilities to increase productivity and sustain development. In particular, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become a powerful tool in sharing information, creating knowledge and diffusing technology. The majority of the developing countries are still behind in their readiness for use of ICTs in development. The concept of digital divide refers to the gap between those who are connected to the information society and those who are not. In the information age, access to information plays a key role in improving the socio-economic well-being of nations by fostering economic growth and poverty alleviation. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance use of ICT technologies in bridging the digital divide. Sustainable development builds bridges between the present and future generations. In recent decades, rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization, climate change and pollution have increased the risk of environmental degradation hindering the process of sustainable development. Closing the digital divide entails building capacity that strengthens a country’s ability to obtain information, create knowledge and improve education. ICTs facilitate connections to global markets providing greater access to information, skills and knowledge necessary for bridging the digital divide.
Seema Joshi, University of Delhi, India
Purpose: There is a vast body of economic literature which recognizes the importance of creation of economic assets for promoting economic growth. The sustainable development concept draws attention to ecological and social dimensions (in addition to economic) which are key to growth and development. The economies which are not able to make the best use of their female populations are under investing in human capital. But human capital is considered to be very essential for sustaining growth. Studies recognize that better use of the world’s female population /female human capital can have several potential benefits like increased economic growth, reduction in poverty, reduction in fertility rate in non-OECD countries, enhancement of business performance ,innovation and effectiveness of health care and social programmes, better response of government policies to the needs of citizens and reduction in damage caused to environment by unsustainable activities. Although women account for over one-half India’s population, but as a group they have been marginalized and their economic and social contributions are largely untapped. Since sustainable development requires maintenance of economic, social and environmental capital, it will be highly appropriate if we try to find out especially whether the economic role of women in India has been maximized for attaining sustainable development goal or not; if not, then we will explore the likely policy implications.
Design/methodology/approach: We try to assess the role of women in economic growth of India. One of the ways to know their economic contribution is through labour market route i.e. participation in the labour market. The study utilized secondary sources of data and statistical methods like panel regression.
Findings: The paper clearly brings out that we are not maximizing the economic role of women as is quite clear from declining female labour foce participation rate (FLFPR ) and female work force participation rate (FWFPR) and also from low FLFPR and FWFPR as compared to labour force and workforce participation rates of males. These have registered a decline too. Besides, gender gaps in wages also exist. Sustainable development goals can be achieved through investment in economic and human capital. Therefore, there is an urgent need for government policies having gender dimension which can go a long way in plugging gender gaps in employment and wages.
Originality/Value: The study is unique because of the reason that no study at the country level tries to find out the relationship between economic growth and certain other variables like FLFPR and gender gap in wages etc. by using state-wise data.
The paper describes Bahrain Parks, an experimental cloud platform under development by the University of Bahrain and the Ministry of Works, which serves the stakeholders of public parks. The platform leverages environmental and user data to information relevant for maintenance, planning and design decision-making. Design attributes are made available with real-time categorised user counts and rating provided by users. We describe the local context and the features of the tool, followed by its integration in the routines of maintenance and design teams at the municipalities, and planning and design teams at the Ministry of Works. The digital, real-time, and centralised nature of the platform allow for the incorporation of sensor-based data, augmenting its integration in established and new workflows while tracking performance metrics. The initiative embodies the essence of a digital-age model of governance, with efficiency, transparency, public participation, and the well-being of the population as core values.
Keywords: Bahrain, sustainable development, built environment, public park, cloud service, public participation, park design, smart city, design efficiency, evidence-based design.
Clifford Tizhe Oaya Zirra, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria
C J Mambula, Langston University, USA
The roles of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in contemporary Nigeria cannot be over stressed as SMEs are viewed to be the panacea for the economic development and growth of indigenous entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Despite the numerous economic contributions of SMEs in Nigeria, they still face lots of challenges. SMEs in Nigeria are generally characterized by inadequate capital base, low managerial skills, and high levels of technical inefficiency, which reduce their potential output levels significantly due to lack or shortage of finance. The study thus examines the Impact of SMEs Financing on Business Growth in Nigeria using Keffi and Mararaba Metropolis as a study. The study adopted descriptive research design, and applied ttest statistics for the test of hypothesis. Findings from the study revealed that the greatest problem confronting SMEs in Nigeria is managerial capacity, and that of access to capital or finance is necessary but not a sufficient condition for successful entrepreneurial development. The study further revealed that interest rates charged on SMEs loans and advances have no effect on SMEs business expansion in Nigeria. Major gaps in Nigeria’s industrial development process in the past years have been the absence of a strong and virile small and medium enterprises subsector (SMEs) owing to financial constraints explained by high lending rates, high loan requirements and lack of viable entrepreneurial skills. The study therefore recommends that there is the need to adopt a favorably low commercial banking lending rate that will accelerate high investment in Small, Medium and large-scale businesses and subsequently in the long-run contribute significantly to economic growth.
Keywords: SMEs, loans and advances, interest rates, business expansion, economic development.
Urban neighborhoods and its spatial form have regained significance in sustainability debates due to its significant impacts on the environment, resource and people. Most of these debates claiming ‘compact cities’ or dense development are more socially sustainable, have been questioned due to the limited empirical data to support the claims. This study aimed to explore the potential of developing a framework to test these relations in Indian scenario. Study collected empirical evidence based on household surveys conducted in 6 neighborhood of Western Ahmedabad, city of Gujarat, India. These survey data were connected to physical measures through maps and other socio-economic demographics .The results suggested that density measures alone physical or perceived is not sufficient for measuring or modulating the social indicators. However certain indicators seemed to positively correlate with higher densities like interaction, participation, satisfaction with neighborhood and social identity. Whereas it negatively affected the physical identity in the neighborhoods studied. The relations were inconclusive for parameters like safety and sense of belonging. Most of the conclusions are not generalizable, but seen within the context studied.
Keywords: Built form; Social Sustainability; Urban; Neighbourhoods; Ahmedabad; Density.
Rania Obead Ahmed, Jubail University College, KSA
Roof gardens (RGs) are considered as one of the important sustainable practices in buildings. RGs have a significant role on environmental, economic and social factors. This research will discuss the benefits of the RGs in a certain town (Jubail Industrial City-Eastern Province – Saudi Arabia) and measure the citizen’s trust in this practice through a questionnaire. It noticeable that, there is a shortage in using RGs in buildings, this according to the construction and maintenance constraints. To find solutions to these constraints, the paper suggests using portable gardens (in containers) instead of constructing one, Moreover the research will recommend a design for the planting container, size and dimension. The plant selection is an important factor in successful RGs, the paper recommends using native and desert plants and some types of vegetables and herbs for the RGs. Besides suggesting a suitable soil for the plants growing. At last, suggests a solution for the RGs irrigation by using an atmospheric water generator.
Keywords: roof gardens – container RG- atmospheric water generator – plant selection – growing media.
Amel Hassan, Khartoum University, Sudan
Soil contamination by crude oil is a common problem worldwide, utilization of microorganism to remediate soil pollution is known as bioremediation. Twenty one species of bacteria were isolated from contaminated soil and screened for its ability to degrade crude oil in 0.5 and 1%(w/v) crude oil in Bushnel Haas Mineral salt and Agar media and to produce biosurfactance. Bacterial population increased and oil concentration did not affect bacterial numbers. Nine strains showed best growth in1%crude oil and haemolysed blood. Growth of the bacteria increased Optical Density and decreased PH during the incubation period. Protein concentration was (0.028, 0.025 mg/ml) and (0.045, 0.021 mg/ml) detected after one and two weeks of growth. Production of protein increased bacterial population and was taken as indicator of successful bioremediation. Bacterial isolates had emulsifying efficiency and can produce active compound reduced surface tension from (56.4) to (37.24) and (34.13). Further identification of bacteria revealed that the two strains were Streptomyces minutiscleroticus and Bacillus anthracis. The two strain facilitated bioavailability and enhanced biodegradation process.
Purpose: The GCC was formed in 1981 for improving cooperation and accelerating economic development in the region. Although the common currency remains a distant reality even today, a Common Market and Customs Union have been created for further cooperation of the six member states. According to Optimal Currency Area analysis by Robert Mundell (AER, 1961) trade between countries in the region is an important precursor for the single currency to be adopted for the region. Recent efforts of diversification have been adopted by the GCC states to mitigate the influence of adverse oil prices on the stability and sustainability of these economies. This paper analyses trade patterns within the GCC to explore the potential success of a single currency in the GCC region.
Design/methodology/approach: This empirical paper analyses detailed patterns of merchandise and services trade between the GCC states during 2005-15 with specific focus on concentration, diversification and similarity of (export and import) trade. The paper employs quantitative methods using time series analysis and relies on publicly available databases provided by UNCTAD, World Bank, IMF, EDB Bahrain and WTO. The paper has been influenced by Robert Mundell’s theoretical construct of the potential success of the single currency within the OCA (American Economic Review (1961).
Findings: The paper concludes that although Bahrain’s exports show dissimilarity when compared with other GCC states, its imports appear very similar. The other five GCC states show similarity among themselves in both exports and imports. Among other things, the paper analyses patterns of diversification within the GCC itself. Since diversification metrics are usually lagged indicators, the paper concludes that by the time diversification results are discernible within each of the GCC economies, trade volumes and patterns would have reached substantial levels between these countries. This trend will not only bring about sustainable intra-GCC trade and development but also provide support for the single currency economic zone.
Originality/value: This paper considers both GCC-wide trade data and diversification efforts of its members within a quantitative analytical framework. The results of the paper will be of value to GCC policymakers by providing a clear rationale for boosting trade and diversification with the long term goal of a single currency.
Keywords: GCC, OCA, international trade, concentration, diversification, similarity index, sustainability.
Purpose: The significance of water governance and inclusive urbanisation is reflected in the recently launched sustainable development goals. The present study is an attempt to focus on the Gurgaon-Manesar urban complex that forms a part of one of the world’s top fifteen global mega cities and likely to witness greater strains of urbanisation. Despite planned structure, this region lacks a proper mechanism for adequate water, power supply, and sewage handling mechanisms. Groundwater is the primary source of water supply while the construction sector is the major consumer. This unsustainable consumption of water has led to some deterring consequences.
Methodology/Approach: To analyse the sustainable use of water and technologies, the present study will attempt to combine the eco-innovation system perspective with the pathway approach. Primary data will be generated through interviews with the NGOs and planners.
Findings: The major thrust will have to be on the augmentation of water resources, greater participation, and government interventions.
Keywords: Change, Development, Governance, India, Sustainability, SDG Technologies, Transformation, Water.
Textbooks are vital tools in the training of medical students. In Africa, there is a huge deficit in terms of literary medical works compared to the western world. Ultimately, this leaves the aspiring African clinician at the mercy of the western authors when it comes to acquiring knowledge about local health issues. The textbooks we use in teaching pre-clinical medical students in Africa are by foreign authors and fails to adequately capture local content. Poor funding of medical research by African governments has left the output of local authors dismally low. Reliance on foreign authors in writing our pre-clinical textbooks has left disconnect between the pre-clinical and clinical stage of the medical training in African medical schools. Paying close attention towards bridging this gap by stimulating African medical researchers towards developing pre-clinical medical textbooks that reflect the African peculiarities is of topmost importance; in order to raise high quality clinicians on the continent.
Mukhtar AL-Hashimi and Sayed Dheya H. Ahmed, Ahlia University, Bahrain
The study investigates public awareness of the government energy conservation programs and people’s willingness to purchase products related to Electricity and Water Conservation Technologies (EWCT) for the purpose of creating business opportunities based on customer acceptance of and preference for (EWCT) within the Kingdom of Bahrain. A review of the literature contributed to the development of the theoretical and conceptual research framework. Quantitative approach questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of 400 Bahraini households, of which 350 were completed and returned. The questionnaire obtained information on respondents’ demographics, property profile, awareness of the government energy conservation programs, customer needs, and willingness to purchase EWCT. Demographic findings are reflective of the country’s population, and findings indicate that Bahraini households are willing to implement EWCT appropriate devices in their homes. Market feasibility and business model for EWCT business technologies were developed based on these findings. This study assesses the market potential for EWCT in Bahrain.
Keywords: Conservation technologies, Bahrain, customer preferences, government program, EWCT acceptance, technologies, awareness.
Elsadig Musa Ahmed and Rahim Kia lashaki, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia
Purpose: This paper examines the influence of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows on the catching up process developed by labour force, physical capital, human capital, absorptive capacity, and telecommunications investment on selected Asian-Pacific’s sustainable productivity growth.
Design/methodology/approach: A panel data for the period of 1970 to 2012 was used. The modified extensive growth theory model that is based on output approach was applied. Both growth accounting and econometrics approaches were considered in estimating the parameters of variables in first step and in the second step productivity indicators were calculated.
Findings: The results show that the FDI inflows and inputs used are input driven that was generally more prevalent than total factor productivity (TFP) growth driven in most Asian countries under study and based and highly dependent on FDI inflows and human capital development. This is indicating that the FDI spillover effects (absorptive capacity) had insignificant impact on these economies. However, Japan, South Korea and China showed technology transfer or what so called FDI spillover effects.
Originality: This paper showed that human capital provides the potential effects of FDI spillover to enhance the economic growth. Meanwhile, the contribution of human capital offers the strongest evidence in influencing GDP and catching up process of these countries.
Keywords: FDI Spillover, Asia-pacific, TFP, catching up process.
Yagoub Ali Gangi, University of Khartoum Sudan & Ahmed Bin Mohamed Military College Qatar Key References:-
Many GCC countries had experienced an unprecedented economic difficulties during the period of international financial crisis of the 2008-2009. During this period all these countries went through a large budget deficit and some of them had for the first time suffered from internal debt problem. These economic difficulties has happened again during the rapid fall in oil prices that has taken place since the late 2014. The government of these countries have been trying to avoid the consequences of such problem by designing and embarking strategic plans that aim for economic diversification. These plans involve many policy packages and initiatives that all directed toward economic diversification and sustainable growth. For example, in 2008 Qatar has launched its Qatar National Vision 2030, supported by its six years plan that both aim for transforming Qatar economy into diversified and competitive knowledge-based economy (QNV 2008). Along the same line Saudi Arabia has launched its 2030 development vision that put economic diversification as its main goal. This is a trend evident in many other GCC countries. Entrepreneurship development is one of the area embraced by these countries to help in diversifying their economies. Beside other policy packages, entrepreneurship education and training programs has been introduced as a policy instrument to foster innovation and enhance entrepreneurship development. This initiative is based on the belief that entrepreneurship education and training can help in developing attitudes, knowledge, and skills associated with the practice of entrepreneurship in countries. Moreover, it is argued that entrepreneurship education could help in building strong personal character and equip students and trainees with the right set of skills and knowledge for establishing their own business and thereby contribute in providing jobs for people in different sectors of the economy ( Efe 2014, Anho 2013, Anho 2011). Emanating from these kind of argument considerable attention has been focused upon entrepreneurship education and training throughout the GCC countries. Therefore government in these countries universities and training institutions in these countries to incorporate entrepreneurship courses and programmes to equip students with entrepreneurial competencies and thereby contribute in fostering innovation and promote entrepreneurship sector. Moreover, universities across these countries were committed to encourage their staffs to move their curriculum and teaching strategies to a more entrepreneurial mode (Gibb et all 2012). Qatar as one of GCC countries, poverty problem or unemployment issues among its Qatari citizen that drives its policy toward entrepreneurship education. However, its policy attempt to introduce entrepreneurship education is justified by their need and intention to stimulate entrepreneurship as enhancing factor to contribute in building knowledge-based and diversified economy, in which Qatari citizens and their ideas and capabilities are the main source of economic activities and wealth. The National Development Strategy 2011-2016 (NDS), which derived from the Qatar National Vision (QNV) 2030, identified specific objectives to encourage SMEs and entrepreneurs. The government has introduced a number of measures to achieve those objectives, including the creation of a government agency to be in charge of stimulating entrepreneurial activities and modernizing business regulations. Despite the fact that entrepreneurship education and training has been introduced in Qatar for many years, few studies has been undertaken in this area and the body of available research remains limited. Moreover, little exploratory research has been carried out to investigate the content, learning strategies, and effectiveness of the entrepreneurship education and training programs. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the relevancy of these programs for the local society of the country. The objective of the present paper is to explore the experience of entrepreneurship education and training in Qatar. The purpose for this exploration is shade some light on Qatar’s experience and give some insight on their strength and drawbacks if exist. The carry out of this study is justified by the need for a common understanding of the important of entrepreneurship education and training for Qatar economy and its role in enhancing Qatar’s need and intention to create knowledge-based and diversified economy. The study try to get answers for four main questions: What is the nature and scope of entrepreneurship education and training programs provided by different institutions in Qatar? Who are the teachers at and beneficial learners from these programs? Has the entrepreneurship education and training programs in Qatar succeeded in transferring an actual business skills and technical competencies to beneficial leaners and thus preparing them for a business career. How are the entrepreneurship education and training programs impacted on Qatar economic growth and structure? These question will be addressed to the economic diversification and creation of knowledge-based economy. Secondary Data for this paper will be collected from different government published document. Whereas primary data will be collected via qualitative techniques by interviewing government officials, trainers, university faculties and practicing and potential entrepreneurs who benefited from entrepreneurship training and education programs.
Yagoub Ali Gangi, University of Khartoum Sudan & Ahmed Bin Mohamed Military College Qatar
The Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is an emerging area for smart cities as observed in last few decades. However, there exist some hurdles for VANET, which need to be cope up for it’s fully implementation in smart cities. The routing is one of the main factors for having effective communication between smart vehicles that need to be addressed smartly. One factor, which effects the communication between the vehicles, is the junction points that come in the way. The traditional routing schemes lack to address the junction problem occurred during the two point of communication. Therefore, this article works out to analyze the performance of existing position-based routing protocol for inter-vehicle ad-hoc network considering the impact of number of junctions. This simulation evaluates different position-based routing protocols such as IDTAR, GyTAR, A-STAR and GSR based on road topology and number junctions. As a result, the protocol IDTAR has less end-to-end delay and high packet delivery ratio in terms of number of junctions as case study of smart cities. This concludes that IDTAR can be adaptive to smart cities communication with some consideration in terms of its security, compatibility, reliability and robustness.
Keywords: VANETs; Greedy Routing; Dijkstra algorithm; Glomosim; VANETMOBISIM; CBR, TWO-RAY.
Abdalbasit A. Mariod, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan
The promising, unconventional and new source of oil in Sudan is available from Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae). This study was carried out to determine the approximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of the Vangueria madagascariensis seed and oil. The oil and protein contents were 40.0, 22.2% respectively in the seed. The oil was extracted using cold extraction (CE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE) methods. Fatty acids, tocopherols and sterol were determined by GC–MS and HPLC, respectively. The major fatty acids in the seed oil extracted by CE and SE were oleic 10.5, and 10.4%, linoleic 63.1 and 63.4%, palmitic 9.7 and 9.8% and stearic 5.1 and 5.4%, respectively. The tocopherol content of CE and SE extracted oils amounted to 110.5 and 107.7 mg/100 g oil, respectively, with beta -tocopherol as the predominant tocopherol in the oil. Sterols profile shows that the major components are β-sitosterol 45.48%, campesterol 22.65% and stigmasterol 20.08% in the oil. The total amount of amino acids was found to be 14.202 g/100 g protein, in the seed. Vangueria madagascariensis oil seed deserve further attention and investigations.
Keywords: Vangueria madagascariensis, seed oil, Extraction method, fatty acids, Tocopherol, Sudan.
Abdelmuniem Yousif Elamin, National Research Centre, Sudan
K. Madhavi, Agricultural Research Institute, India
The present investigation entitled “Residual effect of kharif sorghum on growth and yield parameters of rabi chickpea cropping system” carried out under field condition during 2012 and 2013 with kharif sorghum variety (CSH16) and rabi chickpea variety (JG11) cropping system at ARI Main Farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Experimental site was clay loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction, low in organic carbon as well as low available nitrogen, medium in the available phosphorus and high in available potassium. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three main treatments and three sub-treatments, replicated thrice. There are 9 treatments which included application of three different manures as a main treatments viz., Farm Yard Manure (FYM) Vermicompost, (VC) and Neem Seed Cake (NSC) and their combinations with 0%, 50% and 100% RDF as sub plot treatments. Manures were applied as the recommended doses @ 5 t ha-1for FYM and 2.5 t ha-1 for VC and NSC. The data recorded for two years indicated that plant height, leaf area index (LAI), yield components and seed quality of rabi chickpea during both years was significantly increased as influenced by VC, NSC, FYM, 0%, 50%, 100% RDF and their interactions. The highest LAI was recorded at (60 DAS) in both years 2012 and 2013 for organic manures and inorganic nutrients. VC resulted significantly in higher LAI over FYM and NSC and 100% RDF over 0% and 50% RDF at 60 and 90 DAS, while it was not significant at 30 DAS and at harvest.